Glossary of Terms

Don’t let the industry’s vocabulary confuse you. Learn the meaning of shipping and supply chain terms that might be unfamiliar to you. Click on the first letter to view all the terms beginning with that letter.

A

ABI
Automated Broker Interface. This is a computer system used by custom house brokers to communicate import information to U.S. Customs.

ABS
See American Bureau of Shipping.

Absorption
Acceptance by the carrier of a portion of a joint rate or charge which is less than the amount which it would receive for the service in the absence of such joint rate or charge (aircargo).

Acceptance of Goods
The process of receiving a consignment from a consignor, usually against the issue of a receipt. As from this moment and on this place the carrier’s responsibility for the consignment begins.

Accompanied Transport
The transport of complete road vehicles by another means of transport (e.g. train, ferry accompanied by the driver).

ACEP
See Approved Continuous Examination Program.

ACH
Automated Clearinghouse. An electronic payment program that allows ABI filers to pay CBPduties, taxes, and fees with one electronic transaction.

Acknowledgement of receipt
A notification relating to the receipt of e.g. goods, messages and documents.

ACS
Automated Commercial System. The system used by CBP to track, control, and process all commercial goods imported into the United States.

Act of God
Accidents of a nature beyond human control such as flood, lightning or hurricane.

Active Inventory
Covers raw material, work in progress, finished products which will be used or sold within a given period without extra cost or loss. This term does not cover the so-called reserve inventory.

Actual Demand
Customer orders and often also the allocation of items, ingredients and/or raw materials to production or distribution.

Actual Voyage Number
A code for identification purposes of the voyage and vessel which actually transports the container/cargo.

ADD/CVD
See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty

Added Value
The value attributed to products, and services as the result of a particular process (e.g. production process, storage, transport).

Advance Arrangement
An agreement between the shipper and the carrier, concerning contacts between those parties prior to tendering the consignment.

Advanced Amount
Quantity of cash or cash equivalents expressed in a monetary amount given to a driver to cover expenses during a trip.

Advanced Interline
An interline carrier that picks up cargo from the shipper and delivers it to another carrier for shipment to the consignee.

Advice Note
A written piece of information e.g. about the status of the goods.

Aeroquip System
Special accessories in a container consisting of among others the attachment rails on the inside walls to provide facilities for lashing and separation of the cargo.

Agency Fee
Fee payable by a ship owner or ship operator to a port agent.

Agent
1. A person or organization authorized to act for or on behalf of another person or organization.
2. In shipping, an agent is a corporate body with which MIQ Logistics Global has an agreement to perform particular functions on behalf of MIQ Logistics Global at an agreed payment.

An agent is either a part of the MIQ Global organization or an independent body. The following functions and responsibilities may apply to the activities of an agent.
1. Sales – Marketing, acquisition of cargo, issuing quotations, concluding contracts in coordination with MIQ Logistics Global. Basically the agent is the first point of entry into the organization for a shipper.
2. Bookings – Booking of cargo in accordance with allotments assigned to the agent for a certain voyage by MIQ Logistics Global.
3. Documentation – Responsible for timeliness and correctness of all documentation required, regarding the carriage of cargo.
4. Handling – Taking care of all procedures connected with physical handling of cargo.
5. Equipment control – Managing of all equipment stock in a particular area.
6. Issuing – Authorized to sign and issue Bills of Lading and other transport documents.
7. Collecting – Authorized to collect freight and charges on behalf of MIQ Logistics Global.
8. Delivery – The agent who releases the cargo and is responsible for its delivery to the consignee.
9. Handling of cargo claims – Handling of cargo claims as per agency contract.
10. Husbanding – Handling non cargo related operations of a vessel as instructed by the master, owner or charterer.

Aggregate Inventory
The inventory for any group of items or products, involving multiple stock-keeping units. Synonym: Aggregate Stock.

AII
See Automated Invoice Interface

AIM
See Automatic Identification Manufacturers.

Allocation
The process of assigning activities, costs or facilities e.g. space to a certain organizational units.

Allotment
A share of the capacity of a means of transport assigned to a certain party, e.g. a carrier or an agent, for the purpose of the booking of cargo for a specific voyage.

American Bureau of Shipping
Abbreviation: ABS
American classification society which has established rules and regulations for the classification of seagoing vessels or equipment.

AMS
Automated Manifest System for air and ocean carriers.

Antidumping Duty
Selling below home market prices or cost of manufacture with material injury to an U.S. manufacturer is called dumping. Antidumping duties are levied upon further importation of the merchandise.

Applicant
The buyer of foreign goods in a letter of credit transaction. The applicant asks his/her bank to establish credit for the purchase of these goods.

Approved Continuous Examination Program
Abbreviation: ACEP
An agreement between the owners of the equipment and the responsible governmental body to allow continuous examination of the equipment (e.g. containers).

Apron
See Platform.

Area Code A code for the area where a container is situated.

Area of Repair
Geographical area where a container is under repair.

Area Off Hire Lease
Geographical area where a leased container becomes off hire.

Area Off Hire Sublease
Geographical area where a subleased container becomes off hire.

Area On Hire Lease
Geographical area where a leased container becomes on hire.

Area On Hire Sublease
Geographical area where a subleased container becomes on hire.

Arrival Notice
A notice sent by a carrier to a nominated notify party advising of the arrival of a certain shipment.

Articles Dangereux de Route
Abbreviation: ADR
A European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road.

Assembly
The stage of production in which components are put together into an end product appropriate to the process concerned.

Assignment
The transfer of certain rights from one party to another.

Athwartships
Across the vessel, that is, from side to side. Said of cargo stowed in this way, as opposed to lengthwise.

Audit
A methodical examination and review of a situation or condition (as within a business enterprise) concluding with a detailed report of findings.

Authentication
Proof by means of a signature or otherwise that a certain document or certain data is of undisputed origin and genuine.

Authorization
The commission to a certain person or body to act on behalf of another person or body. The person or body can be authorized e.g. to issue Bills of Lading or to collect freight.

Auto Container
Container equipped for the transportation of vehicles.

Automated Guided Vehicle System
Unmanned vehicles equipped with automatic guidance equipment which follow a prescribed path, stopping at each necessary station for automatic or manual loading or unloading.

Automated Invoice Interface
Abbreviation: AII
AII permits invoice data to be transmitted electronically to the CBP Data Center.

Automatic Identification
A means of identifying an item e.g. a product, parcel or transport unit by a machine (device) entering the data automatically into a computer. The most widely used technology at present is bar code; others include radio frequency, magnetic stripes and optical character recognition.

Automatic Identification Manufacturers
Abbreviation: AIM
International organization of companies and/or associations involved or interested in automatic identification.

Average
The numerical result obtained by dividing the sum of two or more quantities by the number of quantities. In marine insurance: a loss or damage to or in respect of goods or equipment.

Average Adjusters
In general average affairs average adjusters are entrusted with the task of apportioning the loss and expenditure over the parties interested in the maritime venture and to determine which expenses are to be regarded as average or general average.


B

Back Haul
The return movement of a means of transport which has provided a transport service in one direction.

Back Letter
Back letters are drawn up in addition to a contract in order to lay down rights and/or obligations between both contracting parties, which, for some reason cannot be included in the original contract. This expression is sometimes used for letters of indemnity which are drawn up if the condition of the goods loaded gives rise to remarks and, nevertheless, the shipper insists upon receiving clean Bills of Lading. Letters of indemnity are only allowed in very exceptional circumstances.

Back Order
A customer order or commitment, which is unfilled due to insufficient stock.

Back Scheduling
A method of obtaining a production schedule by working backwards from the required due date in order to predict the latest start date consistent with meeting that due date.

Backlog
1. The quantity of goods still to be delivered, received, produced, issued, etc., for which the planned or agreed date has expired.
2. The total number of customer orders which have been received but not yet been shipped. Synonym: Open Order.

BAF
See Bunker Adjustment Factor.

Balespace
The balespace of a vessel is the capacity of cargo spaces under deck (including hatchways but excluding void spaces behind cargo battens and beams) expressed in cubic meters or cubic feet.

Ballast
Materials, solely carried to improve the trim and the stability of the vessel. In vessels usually water is carried as ballast in tanks, specially designed for that purpose.

Bank Guarantee
An undertaking by a bank to be answerable for payment of a sum of money in the event of non performance by the party on whose behalf the guarantee is issued.

Banking System
For marine purposes the practice of always keeping more than one piece of cargo on the quay or in the vessel ready for loading or discharging in order to avoid delays and to obtain optimal use of the loading gear.

Bar Coding
A method of encoding data for fast and accurate electronic readability. Bar codes are a series of alternating bars and spaces printed or stamped on products, labels, or other media, representing encoded information which can be read by electronic readers, used to facilitate timely and accurate input of data to a computer system. Bar codes represent letters and/or numbers and special characters like +, /, -, ., etc.

Bare Boat Charter
A charter whereby the charterer leases the bare ship and appoints the master and crew himself.

Barge
Flat bottomed inland cargo vessel for canals and rivers with or without own propulsion for the purpose of transporting goods.
Synonym: Lighter.

Bars
Special devices mounted on container doors to provide a watertight locking. Synonym: Door lock bars.

Base
Home depot of container or trailer.

Basic Stock
Items of an inventory intended for issue against demand during the resupply lead-time.

Batch
A collection of products or data which is treated as one entity with respect to certain operations e.g. processing and production.

Batch Lot
A definite quantity of some product manufactured or produced under conditions which are presumed uniform and for production control purposes passing as a unit through the same series of operations.

Batch Production
The production process where products/components are produced in batches and where each separate batch consists of a number of the same products/components.

Battens
Members protruding from the inside walls of a vessel’s hold or a (thermal) container to keep away the cargo from the walls to provide an air passage. They may be integral with the walls, fastened to the walls or added during cargo handling.

Bay
A vertical division of a vessel from stem to stern, used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers. The numbers run from stem to stern; odd numbers indicate a 20 foot position, even numbers indicate a 40 foot position.

Bay Plan
A stowage plan which shows the locations of all the containers on the vessel.

BC Code
Safe working practice code for solid bulk cargo.

Bending-moment
Is the result of vertical forces acting on a ship as a result of local differences between weight and buoyancy. The total of these forces should be zero, otherwise change of draft will occur. At sea the bending moment will change as a result of wave impact which than periodically changes the buoyancy distribution. Note: The maximum allowed bending moment of a vessel is restricted by the class bureau to certain limits which are different under port and sea conditions.

Beneficiary
The seller of goods in a letter of credit transaction. If all L/C terms are met, the bank transfers funds to this person.

Berth
A location in a port where a vessel can be moored, often indicated by a code or name.

Bilateral Transport Agreement
Agreement between two nations concerning their transport relations.

Bill of Health
The Bill of Health is the certificate issued by local medical authorities indicating the general health conditions in the port of departure or in the ports of call. The Bill of Health must have been visaed before departure by the Consul of the country of destination. When a vessel has free pratique, this means that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health certifying that there is no question of contagious disease and that all quarantine regulations have been complied with, so that people may embark and disembark.

Bill of Lading
Abbreviation: B/L, plural Bs/L, BOL.
A negotiable instrument that allows the carrier to transport a merchandise shipment from a shipper to a consignee.
The document has the following functions:
1. A receipt for goods, signed by a duly authorized person on behalf of the carriers.
2. A document of title to the goods described therein. 3. Evidence of the terms and conditions of carriage agreed upon between the two parties.

Bill of Material
A list of all parts, sub-assemblies and raw materials that constitute a particular assembly, showing the quantity of each required item.

Bimodal Trailer
1. A road semi-trailer with retractable running gear to allow mounting on a pair of rail boogies. Synonym: Road-Rail trailer
2. A trailer which is able to carry different types of standardized unit loads, (e.g. a chassis which is appropriate for the carriage of one FEU or two TEU’s).

B/L
See Bill of Lading.

Block Train
A number of railway wagons (loaded with containers), departing from a certain place and running straight to a place of destination, without marshalling, transshipping or any coupling ordecoupling of wagons.

Boatman
Person who attends to the mooring and unmooring of vessels.

Bollard
Post, fixed to a quay or a vessel, for securing mooring ropes.

Bolster
See Container Bolster.

Bona Fide
In good faith; without dishonesty, fraud or deceit.

Bonded
The storage of certain goods under charge of customs viz. customs seal until the import duties are paid or until the goods are taken out of the country.
1. Bonded warehouse (place where goods can be placed under bond).
2. Bonded store (place on a vessel where goods are placed behind seal until the time that the vessel leaves the port or country again).
3. Bonded goods (dutiable goods upon which duties have not been paid i.e. goods in transit or warehoused pending customs clearance).

Booking
The offering by a shipper of cargo for transport and the acceptance of the offering by the carrier or his agent.

Booking confirmation
Provided to shipper as confirmation of booking.

Booking Reference Number
The number assigned to a certain booking by the carrier or his agent.

Bordereau
Document used in road transport, listing the cargo carried on a road vehicle, often referring to appended copies of the road consignment note.

Bottleneck
A stage in a process which limits performance. Note: Generally this is interpreted as a facility, function, department etc. that impedes performance, for example a warehouse or distribution centre where goods arrive at a faster rate than they can be transported or stored, thus causing stock-piling at improper moments or in unwanted areas.

Bottom Fittings
Special conical shaped devices inserted between a container and the permanent floor on the deck of a vessel in order to avoid shifting of the container during the voyage of this vessel.

Bottom Lift
Handling of containers with equipment attached to the four bottom corner fittings (castings).

Box Pallet
Pallet with at least three fixed, removable or collapsible, vertical sides.

Branch Warehouse
See Distribution Center.

Break Bulk
To commence discharge.

Break Bulk Cargo
General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitized, containerized and Roll On-Roll Off cargo.
Synonym: Conventional Cargo.

Broken Stowage
The cargo space which is unavoidably lost when stowing cargo. The percentage of wasted space depends upon e.g. the kind of cargo, the packing and the used spaces.

Broker
Person who acts as an agent or intermediary in negotiating contracts.

Brussels Tariff Nomenclature
Abbreviation: BTN
The old Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature for the classification of goods. Now replaced by the Harmonized System.

BSI Specification
British Standards Institution Specification for freight containers.

BTN
See Brussels Tariff Nomenclature.

Buffer Stock
A quantity of goods or articles kept in store to safeguard against unforeseen shortages or demands.

Bulk Bags
A large polythene liner that can be fitted to a 20’GP as an alternative to bulk containers.

Bulk Cargo
Unpacked homogeneous cargo poured loose in a certain space of a vessel or container e.g. oil and grain.

Bulk Carrier
Single deck vessel designed to carry homogeneous unpacked dry cargoes such as grain, iron ore and coal.

Bulk Container
Shipping container designed for the carriage of free-flowing dry cargoes, which are loaded through hatchways in the roof of the container and discharged through hatchways at one end of the container.

Bulkhead
1. Upright partition dividing compartments on board a vessel. The functions of bulkheads are

  • To increase the safety of a vessel by dividing it into watertight compartments.
  • To separate the engine room from the cargo holds.
  • To increase the transverse strength of a vessel.
  • To reduce the risk of spreading fire to other compartments.

2. A vertically mounted board to provide front wall protection against shifting cargo and commonly seen on platform trailers (road cargo).
3. Synonym: Header Board.
4. A partition in a container, providing a plenum chamber and/or air passage for either return or supply air. It may be an integral part of the appliance or a separate construction.

Bull rings
Rings for lashing the cargo in containers.

Bunker
(Tank) spaces on board a vessel to store fuel.

Bunker Adjustment Factor
Abbreviation: BAF
Adjustment applied by shipping lines or liner conferences to offset the effect of fluctuations in the cost of bunkers.

Bunkers
Quantity of fuel on board a vessel.

Business Logistics
1. Logistics within a business system.
2. The coordinating function of material management and physical distribution, which executes the integral control of the goods flow.

Buyer’s Market
A ‘buyer’s market’ is considered to exist when goods can easily be secured and when the economic forces of business tend to cause goods to be priced at the purchaser’s estimate of value. In other words, a state of trade favorable to the buyer, with relatively large supply and low prices.


C

C&F
See Cost and Freight (…named port of destination)

Cabotage
1. Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country.
2. Transport of cargo in a country other than the country where the vehicle is registered (roadcargo).
3. The carriage of a container from a surplus area to an area specified by the owner of that container, in exchange of which and during which the operator can use this container.

CAD
See Cash Against Documents.

CAF
See Currency Adjustment Factor.

Call
The visit of a vessel to a port.

Camber
Slightly arched form of container-floors to strengthen the construction.

Capacity
The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity. The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time.

Capacity Control
Process of registering and steering of capacity.

Cargo
1. Goods transported or to be transported, all goods carried on a ship covered by a B/L.
2. Any goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever carried on a ship, other than mail, ship’s stores, ship’s spare parts, ship’s equipment, stowage material, crew’s effects and passengers’ accompanied baggage (IMO).

Cargo Handling
All procedures necessary to enable the physical handling of goods.

Cargo IMP
See Cargo Interchange Message Procedures.

Cargo Receipt/Dock Receipt
Issued by freight station as receipt for cargo

Cargo Restriction Code
A code indicating that the use of a certain container is restricted to particular cargo.

Cargo Tracer
A document sent by the agent to all relevant parties, stating that certain cargo is either missing or overlanded.

Cargo Unit
A vehicle, container, pallet, flat, portable tank or any other entity or any part thereof which belongs to the ship but is not permanently attached to that ship.

Carriage
The process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another. Synonym: Transport.

Carriage and Insurance Paid To (…named place of destination)
Abbreviation: CIP
Term of sale: The seller has the same obligations as under CPT but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is only required to obtain insurance on minimum coverage. The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term may be used for any mode of transport including multimodal transport.

Carriage Paid To (…named place of destination)
Abbreviation: CPT
Term of sale. The seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered to the carrier, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered into the custody of the carrier. “Carrier” means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of’ carriage, by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier. The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term may be used for any mode of transport including multimodal transport.

Carrier
The party undertaking transport of goods from one point to another.

Carrier/Carrier Contract form
Contract between co-loading NVO’s.

Carrier Haulage
The inland transport service which is performed by the sea-carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relevant transport document.

Carriers Bill of Lading Ports
Terminal, Pre-terminal port or Post-terminal Port as per tariff, indicated on the Bill of Lading and which is not the port physically called at by Carriers’ ocean vessels.

Carriers’ Lien
When the shipper ships goods ‘collect’, the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods, which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the charges due.

Carrying Temperature
Required cargo temperature during transport and storage.

Cartage
See Haulage.

Cash in Advance
A method of making payment for goods. Buyer must pay for goods before they are shipped. Most frequently used for customized items.

Cash Against Documents
Abbreviation: CAD
Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.

Cell
Location on board of a container vessel where one container can be stowed.

Cell-guide
Steel bars and rails used to steer containers during loading and discharging whilst sliding in the ship.

Cell Position
The location of a cell on board of a container vessel identified by a code for successively the bay, the row and the tier, indicating the position of a container on that vessel.

Cellular Vessel
A vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers.

Central Warehouse
A warehouse which performs central functions for a number of warehouses. (e.g. keeping capacity stock).

Centre of Gravity
Point at which the entire weight of a body may be considered as concentrated so that if supported at this point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position.

Certificate
A document by which a fact is formally or officially attested and in which special requirements and conditions can be stated.

Certificate of Analysis
A document, often required by an importer or governmental authorities, attesting to the quality or purity of commodities. The origin of the certification may be a chemist or any other authorized body such as an inspection firm retained by the exporter or importer. In some cases the document may be drawn up by the manufacturer certifying that the merchandise shipped has been tested in his facility and found conform to the specifications.

Certificate of Classification
A certificate, issued by the classification society and stating the class under which a vessel is registered.

Certificate of Delivery
A certificate, indicating the condition of a vessel upon delivery for a charter including ballast, available bunkers and fresh water.

Certificate of Free Sale
A certificate, required by some countries as evidence that the goods, is normally sold on the open market and approved by the regulatory authorities in the country of origin.

Certificate of Insurance
Document that indicates freight has been insured.

Certificate of Origin
A certificate, showing the country of original production of goods. Frequently used by customs in ascertaining duties under preferential tariff programs or in connection with regulating imports from specific sources.

Certificate of Redelivery
A certificate, indicating the condition of a vessel upon redelivery from a charter including ballast, available bunkers and fresh water.

CES
Customs Examination Station. U.S. Customs agents are on duty full-time. If required, freight is taken to a CES to be inspected.

CFR
See Cost and Freight (…named port of destination). (see C&F)

CFS
See Container Freight Station.

Chain Conveyor
A conveyor consisting of two or more strands of chain running in parallel tracks with the loads carried directly on the chains.

Charge
An amount to be paid for carriage of goods based on the applicable rate of such carriage, or an amount to be paid for a special or incidental service in connection with the carriage of goods.

Charge Type
A separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of common services rendered to customers.

Charter Contract
See Charter Party.

Charter Party
A contract in which the ship-owner agrees to place his vessel or a part of it at the disposal of a third party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods for which he receives a freight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a definite period or trip for which a hire is paid.

Charterer
The legal person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel and thus hires or leases a vessel or an aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof.

Chassis
1. A wheeled carriage onto which an ocean container is mounted for inland conveyance.
2. The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, suspension system, wheels, steering mechanism etc., but not the body.

CIF See Cost, Insurance and Freight (…named port of destination).

CIP
See Carriage and Insurance Paid To (…named place of destination).

Claim
A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage or delay.

Classification
Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based on some likenesses or some common traits.

Classification Society
An organization, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being to set and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and their safety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction of shipping containers.

Clean Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading which does not contain any qualification about the apparent order and condition of the goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the front of the B/L). It bears no superimposed clauses expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods or packaging (resolution of the ICS 1951).

Clean on Board
When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods is clean.

Clearance Terminal
Terminal where Customs facilities for the clearance of goods are available.

Cleared Without Examination
Abbreviation: CWE
Cleared by customs without inspection.

Client
A party with which a company has a commercial relationship concerning the transport of e.g. cargo or concerning certain services of the company concerned, either directly or through an agent. Synonym: Customer.

CLP
See Container Load Plan

Collapsible Container
Container, which can be easily folded, disassembled and reassembled.

Co-loading
The loading, on the way, of cargo from another shipper, having the same final destination as the cargo loaded earlier.

Co-makership
The long-term relationship between e.g. a supplier or a carrier and a customer, on the basis of mutual confidence.
Synonym: Co-shippership.

Combination Charge
An amount which is obtained by combining two or more charges.

Combination Chassis
A chassis which can carry either one forty foot or thirty foot container or a combination of shorter containers e.g. 2 x 20 foot.

Combined Transport
Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode such as rail, inland waterway or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode such as road.

Synonym: Multimodal Transport

Combined Transport Document
Abbreviation: CTD
Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods.
Synonym: Multi modal transport document.

Combined Transport Operator
Abbreviation: CTO
A party who undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.
Synonym: Multimodal Transport Operator.

Commercial Invoice
A document showing commercial values of the transaction between the buyer and seller. It is used to clear customs in the destination country.

Commodity
Indication of the type of goods. Commodities are coded according to the harmonized system.

Commodity Box Rate
A rate classified by commodity and quoted per container.

Commodity Code
Code used in the Harmonized System for the classification of goods which are most commonly produced and traded.

Common Access Reference
A key to relate all subsequent transfers of data to the same business case or file.

Component
A uniquely identifiable product that is considered indivisible for a particular planning or control purpose, and/or which cannot be decomposed without destroying it. Note: A component for one organizational group may be the final assembly of another group (e.g. electric motor).

Compradore
A local advisor or agent employed by a foreign party or company who acts as an intermediary in transactions with local inhabitants.

Computer Virus
A program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of itself.

Conditions
1. Anything called for as requirements before the performance or completion of something else.2. Contractual stipulations which are printed on a document or provided separately.

Cones
Devices for facilitating the loading, positioning and lashing of containers. The cones insert into the bottom castings of the container.
Synonym: Locating pin.

Confirming/Advising Bank
Party to a L/C. This bank provides extra “insurance” for the seller of goods. If the issuing (buyer’s) bank can’t or won’t pay for the transaction, the confirming bank will.

Congestion
Accumulation of vessels at a port to the extent that vessels arriving to load or discharge are obliged to wait for a vacant berth.

Connecting Road Haulage
See Drayage.

Consignee
The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.

Consignment
A separate identifiable number of goods (available to be) transported from one consignor to one consignee via one or more than one modes of transport and specified in one single transport document. Synonym for the USA: Shipment.

Consignment Instructions
Instructions from either the seller/consignor or the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder, carrier or his agent, or other provider of a service, enabling the movement of goods and associated activities. The following functions can be covered:

  • Movement and handling of goods (shipping, forwarding and stowage)
  • Customs formalities
  • Distribution of documents
  • Allocation of documents (freight and charges for the connected operations)
  • Special instructions (insurance, dangerous goods, goods release, additional documents required)

Consignment Note
A document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains details of the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrier as proof of receipt.

Consignment Stock
The stock of goods with an external party (customer) which is still the property of the supplier. Payment for these goods is made to the supplier at the moment when they are sold (used) by this party.

Consignor
See Shipper.

Consolidate
To group and stuff several shipments together in one container.

Consolidated Container
Container stuffed with several shipments (consignments) from different shippers for delivery to one or more consignees.

Consolidation
The grouping together of smaller consignments of goods into a large consignment for carriage as a larger unit in order to obtain a reduced rate.

Consolidation Point
Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.

Consolidator
A firm or company which consolidates cargo.

Consortium
Consortium is a form of cooperation between two or more carriers to operate in a particular trade.

Consular Invoice
An invoice covering shipment of goods certified by a consular official of the destination country, and used normally by customs or officials concerned with foreign exchange availability to ascertain the correctness of commercial invoice values.

Consumption Entry
Entry filed for goods imported for use in the U.S.

Container
An item of equipment as defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for transport purposes. It must be of: a)a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use. b)specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading. c)fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly from one mode of transport to another. d)so designed as to be easy to fill and empty. e)having an internal volume of 1 m3 or more. The term container includes neither vehicles nor conventional packing.
Synonym: Freight Container.

Container Bolster
A container floor without sides or end walls which does not have the ISO corner fittings and is generally used for Ro/Ro operations.
Synonym: Bolster. Note: A bolster cannot be handled either full or empty by a container spreader without special gear.

Container Chassis
A vehicle specially built for the purpose of transporting a container so that, when container and chassis are assembled, the produced unit serves as a road trailer.

Container Check Digit
The 7th digit of the serial number of a container used to check whether prefix and serial number are correct.

Container Depot
Storage area for empty containers.

Container Freight Station
Abbreviation: CFS
A facility at which (export) LCL cargo is received for loading (stuffing) into containers or at which (import) LCL cargo is unloaded (stripped) from containers for delivery.

Container Lease
The contract by which the owner of containers (lessor) gives the use of containers to a lessee for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.

Container Load Plan
A list of items loaded in a specific container and where appropriate their sequence of loading.

Container Logistics
The controlling and positioning of containers and other equipment.

Container Manifest
The document specifying the contents of particular freight containers or other transport units, prepared by the party responsible for their loading into the container or unit. Synonym: Unit packing list, Container Load Plan.

Container Moves
The number of actions performed by one container crane during a certain period.

Container Number
Identification number of a container consisting of prefix and serial number and check digit.

Container Platform
A container floor without sides or end walls, which can be loaded by spreader.

Container Pool
A certain stock of containers which is jointly used by several container carriers and/or leasing companies.

Container Prefix
A four letter code that forms the first part of a container identification number indicating the owner of a container.
Synonym: Owner’s Container Code.

Container Safety Convention
Abbreviation: CSC
International convention for safe containers.

Container Serial Number
A seven digit serial number (6 plus 1 Check Digit) that forms the second part of a container identification number.

Container Service Charges
Charges to be paid by cargo interests as per tariff.

Container Size Code
An indication of 2 digits of the nominal length and nominal height. See also Size/Type ISO6346.

Container Size/Type
Description of the size and type of a freight container or similar unit load device as specified in ISO6346.

Container Stack
Two or more containers, one placed above the other, forming a vertical column; also see Stack.

Container Sublease
Contract by which a carrier gives the use of containers to another carrier for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.

Container Terminal
Place where loaded and/or empty containers are loaded or discharged into or from a means of transport.

Container Type Code
Two digits, the first of which indicates the category and the second of which indicates certain physical characteristics or other attributes. See also container Size/Type ISO6346.

Containerized
Indication that goods have been stowed in a container.

Contraband
Goods forbidden by national law to be imported or exported.

Contract
An agreement enforceable by law between two or more parties stipulating their rights and obligations which are required by one or both parties to acts or forbearance by the other or both.

Contract Logistics
The contracting out of all the warehousing, transport and distribution activities or a part thereof by manufacturing companies.

Contractual Port of Loading
A port at which an ocean vessel does not call, but which is equalized with the actual port of call and upon which inland haulage services and inland tariffs are based. Synonym: Commercial POL/POD. Note: Generally speaking it is seen as the port to be mentioned on the B/L from which cargo is accepted (e.g delivered by the consignee for sea transport).

Control
The registration and check on data and activities as well as determining supervising procedures and changes related to procedures.

Conventional Cargo
See Break Bulk Cargo.

Converter Dolly
An auxiliary undercarriage assembly consisting of a chassis, fifth wheel and towbar used to convert a semitrailer or a container chassis to a full trailer.

Conveyance
Transport of goods from one place to another.

Conveyor
A mechanical device in the form of a continuous belt for transporting cargo.

Core Competence
The combination of individual skills and use of technologies that underlay the various products and or services of a business.

Corner Fittings
Fittings located at the corners of containers providing means of supporting, stacking, handling and securing the container.
Synonym: corner casting.

Corner Post
Vertical structural member at either side of an ‘end frame’ of a container joining a top and a bottom corner fitting (and thereby forming a ‘corner structure’).

Correction Message
A substitution for what has been wrong in a prior data interchange between computers in accordance with interchange agreements.

Co-shippership
See Co-makership.

Cost and Freight (…named port of destination)
Abbreviation: CFR
Term of sale. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport. When the ship’s rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off or container traffic, the CPT term is more appropriate to use.

Cost, Insurance and Freight (…named port of destination)
Abbreviation: CIF
Term of sale. The seller has the same obligations as under CFR but with the addition that he has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIF term the seller is only required to obtain insurance on minimum coverage. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport.

COT
The customer arranges his own transport of the container to and from the terminal or depot but aggrees to restitute the container back to the terminal or depot.

COU
See Clip On Unit.

Countervailing Duty
Countervailing duty is levied when imported merchandise receives a bounty or grant when exported with material injury to an U.S. manufacturer.

Country of Departure
Country from which a certain means of transport is scheduled to depart or has departed.

Country of Dispatch
Country from which the goods are shipped.

Country of Origin
Country in which the goods have been produced or manufactured, according to criteria laid down for the purpose of application of the customs tariff, of quantitative restrictions, or of any other measure related to trade.

Country of Provenance
The country from which goods or cargo are sent to the importing country.

CPT
See Carriage Paid To (…named place of destination).

Crane
A machine designed for moving and lifting weight by means of a movable projecting arm or a horizontal beam that is able to travel over a certain distance.

Crew Member
Any person actually employed for duties on board during a voyage in the working or service of a ship and included in the crew list (IMO).

Critical Path Method
A network planning technique used for planning and controlling the activities in a project. By showing each of these activities and their associated times, the ‘critical path’ can be determined. The critical path is the series of successive activities which takes up most time and is therefore decisive for the total lead time of the project.

Cross Trades
Term used in shipping for the services of a vessel between nations other than the nation in which the vessel is registered (UNCTAD).

Cruise Ship
A ship on an international voyage carrying passengers participating in a group programme and accommodated on board, for the purpose of making scheduled temporary tourist visits at one or more different ports, and which during the voyage does not normally: (a) embark or disembark any other passengers; (b) load or discharge any cargo.

CSC
See Container Safety Convention.

CTD
See Combined Transport Document.

CTO
See Combined Transport Operator.

C-TPAT
Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism. A voluntary supply chain security program led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and focused on improving the security of private companies’ supply chains with respect to terrorism.

Currency
A medium of exchange of value, defined by reference to the geographical location of the authorities responsible for it ISO4217. In general, the monetary unit, involved in a transaction and represented by a name or a symbol.

Currency Adjustment Factor
Abbreviation: CAF
Adjustment applied by shipping lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.

Customer
See Client.

Customer Pick Up
Cargo picked up by a customer at a warehouse.

Customer Service
1. The way in which during a commercial relationship the wishes and demands of the (prospective) client are catered for.
2. Supporting activities at the customer interface adding value to a product.

Customer Service Level
A performance measure of customer service. Note: generally this is seen as the degree with which customer orders can be executed, in accordance with the terms which are generally accepted in the market.

Customhouse Broker
Person or firm, licensed by the U.S. Treasury Department, acting as the importer’s agent to facilitate the entry of goods to the U.S. and pay duties

Customs
The department of the Civil Service that deals with the levying of duties and taxes on imported goods from foreign countries and the control over the export and import of goods e.g. allowed quota, prohibited goods.

Customs Broker
An authorized agent specialized in customs clearance procedures on account of importers/exporters.

Customs Invoice
Document required by the customs in an importing country in which an exporter states the invoice or other price (e.g. selling price, price of identical goods), and specifies costs for freight, insurance and packing etc., terms of delivery and payment, for the purpose of determining the customs value in the importing country of goods consigned to that country.

Customs Registration
Service provided by freight forwarders to register exporters with the U.S. government.

Customs Value
The worth of an item or group of items expressed in a monetary amount, within a consignment declared to Customs for duty and statistical reasons.

CWE
See Cleared Without Examination.

CY
See Container Yard.

CYC
Container Yard Charges – Charges at destination

Cybernetics
The study of control processes in mechanical, biological, electrical and information systems.


D

Damage Report
Form on which physical damage is recorded (e.g.containers).

Damaged Cargo Report
Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.

Dangerous Goods
Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.

Dangerous Goods Declaration
Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labelled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.

Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate
A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.

DAP
See Delivered at Place (…named place of destination).

DAT
See Delivered at Terminal (… named terminal at port or place of destination).

Data Plate
A metal identification plate affixed to a container which displays among others the gross and tare weights and external dimensions.

DDP
See Delivered Duty Paid (…named place).

Deadload
The difference between the actual and calculated ship’s draft.

Deadweight
Abbreviation: DWT
The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under the circumstances. The deadweight is expressed in tons.

Deck
Any extended horizontal structure in a vessel, serving as a floor and structural support, covering, partially or fully, a portion of the vessel.

Declaration of Origin
Appropriate statement as to the origin of the goods, made in connection with their exportation by the manufacturer, producer, supplier, exporter or other competent person on the commercial invoice or any document relating to goods.

Declared Value for Carriage
The value of the goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purpose of determining charges or of establishing the limit of the carrier’s liability for loss, damage or delay. It is also the basis for possible applicable valuation charges (aircargo).

Decoupling Inventory
A stock retained to make the independent control of two successive operations possible.

Decoupling Point
The point in the supply chain which provides a buffer between differing input and output rates.

Default Charge
A (standard) charge applicable for a trade, stretch or location. In the absence of specifics (not otherwise specified/enumerated) a general amount has been set.

Degroupage
Splitting up shipments into small consignments.

Delivered at Place (…named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DAP
Term of Sale. The Seller delivers when the goods are placed at the Buyer’s disposal on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the names place of destination. The Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place.

Delivered at Terminal (…named terminal at port or place of destination)
Abbreviation: DAT
Term of Sale. The Seller delivers when the goods, once unloaded from the arriving means of transport, are placed at the Buyer’s disposal at a named terminal at the named port or place of destination. “Terminal” includes any place, whether covered or not, such as a quay, warehouse, container yard or road, rail or air cargo terminal. The Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to and unloading them at the terminal at the named port or place of destination.

Delivered Duty Paid (…named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DDP
Term of Sale. The Seller delivers the goods -cleared for import – to the Buyer at destination. The Seller bears all costs and risks of moving the goods to destination, including the payment of Customs duties and taxes.

Delivery
The process of delivering the consignment to the consignee at the agreed place.

Delivery Instruction
Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of goods ordered.

Delivery Note
A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).

Delivery Order
1. Written instructions issued by the owner of freight (or authorized agent) directing that the freight be released or shipped to a specified party.
2. A document issued by or on behalf of the carrier authorizing the release of import cargo identified thereon and manifested under a single Bill of Lading (shipping).

Delivery Party
The party to which goods are to be delivered.

Delivery Reliability
The proportion of total delivery occasions in which the time, place, quality and quantity of products delivered accords with the order.

Delivery Schedule
The required and/or agreed time of delivery of goods or services purchased for a future period.

Delivery Time
The time between order and delivery.

Demand
The quantity of goods required by the market to be delivered in a particular period or at a specific date.

Demurrage
Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time that is included in the rate and allowed for the use of a certain equipment at the terminal.

Density of Commodity
The mass of a commodity to its volume.

Dependent Demand
A demand directly related to or derived from the demand for other items or end products. Dependent demands are therefore calculated, and need not and should not be forecast.

Depot
The place designated by the carrier where empty containers are kept in stock and received from or delivered to the container operators or merchants.

Derrick
Lifting equipment on board a conventional vessel for loading and discharging cargo, consisting of a post attached to the deck and an inclined spar.

Despatch
The process of sending goods. Synonym: Dispatch.

Despatch Advice
Information send by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods are sent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.
Synonym: Despatch note.

Despatch Days
The days gained if the free time included in the rate and allowed for the use of a certain equipment is not fully used.

Destination
Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound.

Detention
Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed. See Demurrage.

Detention Charge
Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.

Deterioration
The downgrading of a product due to long storage, damage to packing or other external influences.

Devanning
See Stripping, Unpacking.

Deviation from a Route
A divergence from the agreed or customary route.

Dimensions
Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.

Direct Delivery
The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer. Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequate storage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo).

Direct Interchange
Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).

Disbursement
Sums paid out by a ship’s agent at a port and recovered from the carrier.

Discharge
1. The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft.
2. The landing of cargo.

Discrepancy
Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.

Discrete Code
A bar code in which the spaces between characters (intercharacter gaps) are not part of the code as each character begins and ends with a bar. The spaces can therefore vary in width, specified tolerances.

Dispatch
See Despatch.

Displacement
The weight of the quantity of water displaced by the vessel. The displacement of the vessel on her light draft represents the weight of the vessel ready for use including stores etc.

Disposable Pallet
Pallet intended to be discarded after a single cycle of use. Synonym: One-way pallet, Expendable pallet.

Disposal Chain
A sequence of events in a goods-flow which gets rid of a specific good. This may include removal, recycling, waste dumping etc.

Disposal of Goods
The act of getting rid of goods.

Dispositioning
All activities relating to the inland movement of empty and or full containers.

Distribution
The set of activities which ensure the availability of goods in the desired quality, quantity, place and time for the customer. See also physical distribution.

Distribution Center
A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.

Distribution Channel
The route by which a company distributes goods.

Divider
A vertically mounted partition in a compartment on board of an aircraft (aircargo). Synonym: Partition.

Dock Bumpers
Cushioning devices (rubber, plastic, wood, etc.) mounted at the extreme rear of a chassis or trailer to take the impact when it backs into a loading dock or platform (road cargo).

Dock Receipt
Document issued by a shipping line acknowledging that goods are received for shipment.

Document
Anything printed, written, relied upon to record or prove something.

Document Holder
Usually fastened to the door on the front of a container. May contain e.g. a certificate of approval of the container.

Document of Title
A term to mean that possession of the specified document entitles the holder to control of the goods listed in that document.

Documentary Collections
Method of making payment for goods. A collecting bank, acting as intermediary, will exchange original documents representing ownership of the goods for payment (sight draft) or a promise to pay (time draft).

Documentary Credit
The basis of international trade by means of which payment is made against surrender of the specified documents.

Door Lock Bars
See Bars.

Door to Door Transport
The transport of cargo from the premises of the consignor to the premises of the consignee.

Double Banking
Two vessels moored alongside each other on a certain berth.

Double-deck Pallet
Flat pallet with a top and bottom deck.

Double Stack Train
A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two-high.

Down Time
The period of time when a machine is not available for production due to a functional failure or maintenance.

Draft
The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.
Synonym: Draught.

Draught
See Draft.

Drawback
Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.

Drayage
1. The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides. (dray)
2. Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place. Synonym: Connecting Road Haulage

Drilling Rig
A structure, which drills wells in the bottom in order to search for oil.

Drop off Charge
Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or pool container into depot stock. The dropoff charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.

Dry Bulk Container
Container consisting of a cargo-carrying structure, firmly secured within a framework, for the carriage of dry solids in bulk without packaging.

Dry Cargo Container
Shipping container which is designed for the carriage of goods other than liquids.

Dunnage
Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.

Duty Drawback
A U.S. manufacturer can recover 99% of the duties on imported goods that are used to manufacture American products for export. This provision also applies to goods that are imported and then exported without further processing, providing the merchandise was not used in the U.S., no value was added to the product, and the goods were exported within three years of original importation.

Duty Free Zone
An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.

DWT
See Deadweight.


E

Econometric Models
A system of simultaneous equations for forecasting, based on mutual dependency among the variables used.

Economic Speed
That speed of a means of transport which produces the best possible financial result for the owner. Such speed should not be in excess of the maximum or minimum output allowed for the engine(s).

Economy of Scale
A phenomenon which encourages the production of larger volumes of a commodity to reduce its unit cost by distributing fixed costs over a greater quantity.

ECSI – Export Cargo Shipping Instruction/Preadvise
Instructions from shipper with details of all parties involved and description of goods.

EDI S
ee Electronic Data Interchange.

EDIFACT
See Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport.

EDP
See Electronic Data Processing.

EDR
See Equipment Damage Report.

EIN
Employer’s Identification Number. Number assigned to a firm for tax reporting purposes. If operating as an individual, that person’s social security number takes the place of an EIN.

EIR
See Equipment Interchange Receipt.

Electronic Data Interchange
Abbreviation: EDI
The transfer of structured data, by agreed standards from applications on the computer of one party to the applications on the computer of another party by electronic means.

Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport
Abbreviation: EDIFACT
The ISO application level syntax rules for the structuring of user data and of the associated service data in the interchange of messages in an open environment.

Electronic Data Processing
Abbreviation: EDP
The computerized handling of information (e.g. business data).

Elevator
Equipment used to discharge some bulk cargoes such as grain which is removed from the hold by a continuous line of buckets or by suction and carried on a conveyor belt to store.

Embargo
A government order prohibiting the entry or departure of commercial vessels or goods at its ports.

Emergency Medical Service
Abbreviation: EMS
Medical procedures in case of emergencies on board of vessels.

EMS
See Emergency Medical Service.

Endorsement
The transfer of the right to obtain delivery of the goods of the carrier by means of the consignee’s signature on the reverse side of a bill of lading. If the name of the new consignee (transferee) is not stated, the endorsement is an open one which means that every holder of the document is entitled to obtain delivery of the goods.

Enquiry
Document issued by a party interested in the purchase of goods specified therein and indicating particular, desirable conditions regarding delivery terms, etc., addressed to a prospective supplier with a view to obtaining an offer.

Enterprise
An organization created to provide products and/or services to customers.

Equipment
Material resources necessary to facilitate the transport and handling of cargo. Transport equipment does under the given circumstances not have the ability to move by its own propulsion (e.g. sea container, trailer, unit load device, pallet).

Equipment Damage Report
Abbreviation: EDR
Written statement concerning damage to equipment, based on a physical inspection.

Equipment Interchange Receipt
Abbreviation: EIR
Physical inspection and transfer receipt.

Estimated Time of Arrival
Abbreviation: ETA
The expected date and time of arrival in a certain (air)port. Synonym: Expected time of arrival.

Estimated Time of Departure
Abbreviation: ETD
The expected date and time when a certain (air)port is left. Synonym: Expected time of departure.

ETA
See Estimated Time of Arrival.

ETD
See Estimated Time of Departure.

Even Keel
Said of a vessel that is balanced in such a way that the draft forward and aft is the same as the draft in the midship of the vessel on both sides.

Event
An occurrence.

Ex Works (…named place of delivery)
Abbreviation: EXW
Term of sale. The seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available at his premises (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, he is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer or for clearing the goods for export, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller’s premises to the desired destination. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller. This term should not be used when the buyer cannot carry out directly or indirectly the export formalities. In such circumstances, the FCA term should be used.

Exceptions Clause
See Exemption Clause.

Excess
Going over the prescribed amount or degree e.g. excess luggage is luggage of which the weight is over the weight for free carriage.

Excess Stock
That portion of stock on hand which is over and above the desired stock level.

Exchange Rate
The rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another, usually expressed as the value of the one in terms of the other.

Execution
The actual act of carrying out a task.

Exemption Clause
A clause in a contract, which relieves the carrier’s responsibility for certain events. Synonym: Exceptions Clause.

Expected
Likely to occur or appear.

Expediting
The ‘rushing’ or ‘chasing’ of production or purchase orders which are needed in less than the normal lead time.

Expendable Pallet
See disposable pallet. Synonym: One Way Pallet.

Expenses
Costs paid out in connection with booking of cargo and arranging transport (e.g. commission).

Expiration
Termination of a certain period.

Export
The process of carrying or sending goods to another country or countries, especially for purposes of use or sale in the country of destination. The sale of products to clients abroad.

Export License
Document, assigned by the U.S. Department of Commerce, granting permission to export as detailed within a specified time. Items restricted for export must have an export license.

Export Packer
Company, packing goods for export.

Exporter
The party responsible for the export of goods.

Extract
Summary or copy of something written, e.g. used in connection with the log book.

EXW
See Ex Works (…named place of delivery).


F

Fabrication
A term used to distinguish manufacturing operations for components as opposed to assembly operations.

Factory Delivery
The delivery of goods by a factory whereby the goods are put at the disposal of another (internal) party such as a commercial department.

Fairway
A navigable channel for vessels, often the regular or prescribed track a vessel will follow in order to avoid dangerous circumstances.

FAK
See Freight All Kinds.

FAL
Facilitation Committee of the IMO.

Fantainer
Identical to a GP but is fitted with an electric extraction fan for carriage of cargoes prone to condensation. 20′ only

FAS
See Free Alongside Ship (…named port of shipment).

Fashion Transport
Transport of clothing and/or garments including shoes, belts and handbags in dedicated means of transport.

FCA
See Free Carrier (…named place of delivery).

FCC
See Fully Cellular Containership.

FCL
See full container load.

Feed Back
The flow of information back into the control system so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance.

Feeder
A vessel normally used for local or coastal transport (for carriage of cargo and/or containers) to and from ports not scheduled to be called by the main (ocean) vessel, directly connecting these ports to the main (ocean) vessel.

Fender
An appliance made of rubber, timber and/or rope or other materials normally attached to a dock or quay used to prevent damage to the hull of a vessel especially during mooring and un-mooring operations.

FEU
Forty foot equivalent unit. A term used in indicating container vessel or terminal capacity. Two 20 foot containers equal one FEU.

FIFO
See First In First Out.

Fifth Wheel
Circular or wheel-shaped bearing mechanism, secured on the rear of the chassis of a truck-tractor that engages the semi-trailer king pin with a spring lock device and supports the weight of the front end of the semi-trailer.

FILO
See Free In Liner Out.

FIO
See Free In and Out.

First In First Out
Abbreviation: FIFO
The method whereby the goods which have been longest in stock (first in) are used, delivered (sold) and/or consumed first (first out).

Fixed Crane A crane of which the principal structure is mounted on permanent or semi permanent foundations.

Fixed Height Load-carrying Truck
Truck carrying its load on a non-elevating platform. Synonym: Fixed platform truck.

Fixed Platform Truck
See Fixed Height Load-carrying Truck.

Flag
An indication of the country in which a means of transport is registered through a reference to the ensign of this country.

Flammable
Capable to be set on fire under given circumstances. (Amendment 25 IMO DGS).

Flash Point
The lowest temperature at which a good produces enough vapour to form a flammable mixture with air.

Flat
See Flat Rack.

Flat Bed Trailer
A wheeled trailer or a semi-trailer with a flat cargo carrying surface or deck and without any superstructure.

Flat Pack
Garments packed in cardboard boxes.

Flat Rack
A flat bed with fixed ends suitable for the carriage of cargo of excessive width and plated for carriage of heavy loads. 20′ and 40′

Fleet
Any group of means of transport acting together or under one control.

Flexibility
The extent to which and the rate at which adjustments to changed circumstances are possible.

Flexitanks
A large polythene liner which can be fitted inside a 20’GP for the transportation of non-hazardous liquids

Floating
Freely suspending in water of an object.

Floating Crane
A crane mounted on a barge or pontoon, which can be towed or is self propelled.

Floating Dock
A floating structure which can be partially submerged to enable vessels to enter and to leave and which can be raized for use as a dry dock.

Floating Stock
See Pipeline Inventory.

Flow Chart
A diagram, using symbols and depicting the sequence of events that should take place in a complex set of tasks.

Flow control
A term often used to describe a specific production control system.

Flow Line
The direction of flow in which e.g. pallets have been positioned and stowed.

Flow of materials
The flow of materials and components which goes to and through the factory for the production process.

FMC
Federal Maritime Commission (Control of shipping acts USA)

FOB
See Free on Board.

Fo’c’s’le
See Forecastle.

Fore and Aft Stowage
Stowage from the bow to the stern (lengthwise), as opposed to stowage athwartships.

Forecast
1. An estimation or calculation in advance; a prediction.
2. The amount of cargo expected to be booked for a certain sailing of a vessel. The number of containers expected to be used in a certain area, for steering purposes.

Forecastle
Abbreviation: Fo’c’s’le.
Forward part of a vessel where stores, ropes and anchor chains are located.

Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ)
Enclosed area in or near a port of entry that, while located on American territory, is effectively outside the customs jurisdiction of the United States. Freight can enter an FTZ, be stored, manipulated, etc., and exported without incurring duty charges.

Fork Lift Pockets
See Fork Pockets.

Fork Lift Truck
A three or four wheeled mechanical truck with forks at the front designed for lifting, carrying and stowing cargo.

Fork Pockets
Openings or recesses in a side of a container for the entry of the forks of a fork lift truck. Synonym: Fork Lift Pockets.

Formula of Camp
A mathematical formula on behalf of inventory management for calculating the optimum order quantity.

Forty Foot Equivalent Unit A
bbreviation: FEU
Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty feet shipping container.

Forward
At, near or towards the bow or front of a vessel.

Forwarder
The party arranging the carriage of goods including connected services and/or associated formalities on behalf of a shipper or consignee.
Synonym: Freight Forwarder.

Forwarding Instruction
Document issued to a freight forwarder, giving instructions to the forwarder for the forwarding of goods described therein.

Four Way Pallet
A pallet of which the frame permits the entry of forks of e.g. a fork lift truck at all four sides.

Fragile
Easily breakable. Term denoting that goods should be handled with care.

Franchise Amount which in case of damage will have to be borne by the assured.

Free Alongside Ship (…named port of shipment)
Abbreviation: FAS
Term of sale. The seller is responsible for getting the goods to the shipping vessel. The buyer takes responsibility for the consolidation and loading of the vessel as well as all other charges beyond the origin port.

Free Carrier (… named place of delivery)
Abbreviation: FCA
Term of sale. The Seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier selected by the Buyer. The Seller loads the goods if the carrier pickup is at the Seller’s premises. From that point, the Buyer bears the costs and risks of moving the goods to destination.

Free House Unclear
Delivered at a certain destination without payment of certain duties or incurred costs.

Free In and Out
Abbreviation: FIO
Transport condition denoting that the freight rate excludes the costs of loading and discharging and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.

Free In Liner Out
Abbreviation: FILO
Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of discharging, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of loading and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.

Free Lift
The maximum elevation of the forks of a fork lift truck.

Free On Board (…named port of shipment)
Abbreviation: FOB
Term of sale. The seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. When the ship’s rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off transport, the FCA term is more appropriate to use.

Free Port
An international port or an area within an international port at which, crew, passengers, baggage, cargo, mail and stores may be disembarked or unloaded, may remain and may be transhipped, without being subjected to any customs charges or duties. (Examination is possible for instance to meet security or narcotics control requirements.) Source: IMO.

Free Pratique
Permission granted by local medical authorities, denoting that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health so that people may embark and disembark.

Free Trade Zone
Abbreviation: FTZ
A part of the territory of a state where any goods introduced are generally regarded, in so far as import duties and taxes are concerned, as being exempted (Kyoto Convention). Synonym: Free Port, Free Airport.

Freeboard of a Vessel
Vertical distance from the main deck to the surface of the water measured at the middle of the vessel’s length.

Freight
The amount of money due for the carriage of goods and payable either in advance or upon delivery.

Freight All Kinds
Abbreviation: FAK
Single freight that is charged irrespective of the commodity.

Freight Cargo Receipt
For use on import shipment in exchange for receipt of each shipment.

Freight Collect
Freight and charges be paid by the consignee.

Freight Container
See Container.

Freight Costs
Costs incurred by the merchant in moving goods, by whatever means, from one place to another under the terms of the contract of carriage. In addition to transport costs this may include such elements as packing, documentation, loading, unloading and transport insurance.

Freight Forwarder
An individual or firm retained by the shipper to handle all or part of the export arrangements, including transportation and documentation.

Freight Invoice
An itemized list of goods shipped and services rendered stating fees and charges.

Freight Manifest
A (cargo) manifest including all freight particulars.

Freight Prepaid
Freight and charges to be paid by the consignor.

Freight Ton
A unit for freighting cargo according to weight and/or cubic measurement. Synonyms: Revenue ton, Bill of Lading ton.

Freighter
A vessel or an aircraft used for the carriage of cargo.

FTL
Full Truck Load, an indication for a truck transporting cargo directly from supplier to receiver.

FTZ
See Free Trade Zone.

Full Container Load
Abbreviation: FCL
1. A container stuffed or stripped under risk and for account of the shipper and/or the consignee.
2. A general reference for identifying container loads of cargo loaded and/or discharged at merchants’ premises.

Full Trailer
A truck trailer constructed in such way that its own weight and that of the cargo rest upon its own wheels, instead of being supported by e.g. a tractor.

Fully Cellular Containership
Abbreviation: FCC
A vessel specially designed to carry containers, with cell-guides under deck and necessary fittings and equipment on deck.

Fumigation
Treating of cargoes with gases to exterminate unwanted life forms.


G

G/A
See General Average.

Gang
A number of workmen acting together especially for loading and/or discharging operations of a vessel in combination with the necessary gear. (On a vessel for instance 6 gangs can be ordered to discharge or load.)

Gangway
Bridge laid from an opening in the railing or side of a vessel to the shore or to a platform with the purpose of giving access to and from the vessel.

Gantry Crane
A crane or hoisting machine mounted on a frame or structure spanning an intervening space, which often travels on rails.

Gateway
1. A point at which cargo is interchanged between carriers or modes of transport.
2. A means of access, an entry.

GATT
See General Agreement On Tariffs and Trade.

GCR
See General Cargo Rate and General Commodity Rate.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Abbreviation: GATT
Major international agreement on trade and tariffs between many nations all over the world.

General Average
Abbreviation: G/A
A maritime insurance term. All shipper’s help pay for damages or loss if any part of the ship or cargo is voluntarily sacrificed (thrown overboard) to save the ship and/or the rest of the cargo. When a vessel is in danger, the master has the right to sacrifice property and/or to incur reasonable expenditure. Measures taken for the sole benefit of any particular interest are not considered general average.

General Average Act (York-Antwerp Rules)
There is a general average act when, and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.

General Average Statement
This shows in detail all general average costs and expenses and the contribution of each interest in the general average in proportion to its value.

General Cargo
Cargo, consisting of goods, unpacked or packed, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletized. General cargo can be shipped either in breakbulk or containerized.

General Purpose Container
A container used for the carriage of general cargo without any special requirements for the transport and or the conditioning of the goods.

Gen-set
Motor generator set as power source for e.g. thermal containers.

Goods Control Certificate
Document issued by a competent body evidencing the quality of goods described therein, in accordance with national or international standards, or conforming to legislation in the importing country, or as specified in the contract.

Goods Flow
The direction and path of the movement of goods and sequence of placement of those goods in a supply chain.

Goods in Transit
The goods which have departed from the initial loading point and not yet arrived at the final unloading point.
Synonyms: Stock in Transit, In Transit Inventory, Transportation Inventory.

Goods Item
A separate identifiable quantity of products or articles of a single type.

Goods Receipt
Document issued by a port, warehouse, shed, or terminal operator acknowledging receipt of goods specified therein on conditions stated or referred to in the document.

Gooseneck
Gooseneck shaped front end of a trailer or chassis. Recessed front bottom of a container to reduce the total height of the chassis plus container.

Grid Number
An indication of the position of a container in a bay plan by means of a combination of page number, column and line. The page number often represents the bay number.

Gross Manifest
A manifest containing freight details without any appropriate disbursements.

Gross Tonnage
Abbreviation: GRT
The measure of the overall size of a vessel determined in accordance with the provisions of the international convention on measurement of vessels usually expressed in register ton.

Gross Weight
Weight (mass) of goods including packing, but excluding the carrier’s equipment expressed in whole kilograms. The weight of a shipment including materials necessary for blocking etc. (aircargo).

Gross Weight of Container
Total weight of container including cargo (in kilograms).


H

Hague Rules
International convention for the unification of certain rules, relating to Bills of Lading (1924). These Rules include the description of responsibilities of ocean carriers.

Half Height
Identical to the open top, but with 4’3″ ends and not the standard 8’6″. Suitable for the carriage of heavy cargo as the box weight is considerably less. 20′ only

Hamburg Rules
United Nations Convention on the carriage of goods by sea of 1978 adopted in 1992.

Handling Instructions
Indication how cargo is to be handled.

Handling Service
Service concerning the physical handling of cargo.

Harbour
Place of shelter for vessels. Most of the time used as an indication for the geographical location.

Harmonized System
Abbreviation: HS, HTS
A numeric multi purpose system, developed by the Customs Cooperation Council, for the classification of goods with its six digits it covers about 5000 descriptions of the products or groups of products most commonly produced and traded. It is designed for customs services, but can also be used for statistics, transport purposes, export, import and manufacturing.

Hatch Cover
Watertight means of closing the hatchway of a vessel.

Hatch Way
Opening in the deck of a vessel through which cargo is loaded into, or discharged from the hold and which is closed by means of a hatch cover.

Haulage
The inland carriage of cargo or containers between named locations/points. Synonym: Cartage.

Haulier
Road carrier.

H/C-High Cube
Identical to the GP, but with 9’6″ sides and not the standard 8’6″. 40′ only

Header Board
See Bulkhead (roadcargo).

Heated Container
Thermal container served by a heat producing appliance.

Heavy Lift
Single commodity exceeding the capacity of normal loading equipment and requiring special equipment and rigging methods for handling.

Heavy Lift Vessel
A vessel specially designed and equipped for the carriage of heavy cargo.

Hedging
Buying or selling earlier and more than really needed in order to protect the company against price increases or shortages of commodities or components to realize profits when prices fluctuate.

Hinterland
The inland area served by a certain port.

Hitchment Cargo
An amount of goods which is added to an original consignment as the owner and the destination are the same as those of the original consignment.

Hogged
Loading condition of a vessel in such a way that the centre of the vessel is slightly raized (arch-wise in the centre).

Hold
The space below the deck of a vessel, used to carry cargo.

Home Port
The port of registration of a vessel.

House Address
Place of receipt respectively delivery (name and address) in case of carrier haulage.

House Bill Number
An alphanumeric identifier that references an individual cargo shipment consolidated under a master bill of lading.

HS
See Harmonized System.

Hub
The central transhipment point in a transport structure, serving a number of consignees and/or consignors by means of spokes. The stretches between hubs mutually are referred to as trunks.

Huckepack Carriage
See Piggyback.

Hull
Outer shell of a vessel, made of steel plates or other suitable material to keep water outside the vessel.

Husbanding
Taking care of a vessel’s non cargo related operations as instructed the by the master or owner of such vessel.


I

I.T.
In-Transit document filed with Customs to allow movement of goods to inland Customs clearance locations.

ICD
See Inland Clearance Depot.

ICHCA
International Cargo Handling Coordinating Association.

ICS
See International Chamber of Shipping.

Identification
The unique data, e.g. name, number or code, determining a certain object or person.

Idle Time
The amount of ineffective time whereby the available resources are not used e.g. a container in a yard.

Ignition
Setting on fire or catching fire.

ILO
See International Labour Organization.

IMDG Code
See International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.

IMGS
See International Medical Guide for Ships.

IMO
See International Maritime Organization.

Importer
The party responsible for the import of goods. For customs purposes it is the party who makes, or on whose behalf an agent makes, an import declaration. This party may be the party who has possession of the goods or to whom the goods are consigned.

In-bond
The act of transporting a cargo shipment from a port of unlading to another port for entry or disposition under bond.

Informal Entry
Filed for personal shipments of any value, for certain commercial shipments valued at $1250 or less and for certain textile shipments valued at $250 or less.

Intensive Examination
Thorough physical examination of import freight by U.S. Customs.

International formalities
Any documentation that must be filed or procedures that must be followed to export or import freight.

In Transit
The status of goods or persons between the outwards customs clearance and inwards customs clearance.

Incoterms
Trade terms in coded form as established by the International Chamber of Commerce in 1953, whereafter they have been regularly updated. (Last update 2010). The terms represent a set of international rules for the interpretation of the principal terms of delivery used in trade contracts.

Indemnification
Compensation for a loss and/or the expenses incurred.

Independent Demand
A demand which is unrelated to demand for other products. Demand for finished goods, parts required for destructive testing and service parts requirements are examples of independent demand.

Infrastructure
System of roads, waterways, airfields, ports and/or telecommunication networks in a certain area.

Inland Clearance Depot
Abbreviation: ICD
Inland location where cargo, particulary containerized, may be cleared by customs.

Inland Waterways Bill of Lading
Transport document made out to a named person, to order or to bearer, signed by the carrier and handed to the sender after receipt of the goods.

Insulated Container
Thermal container without the use of devices for cooling and/or heating.

Insulated Tank Container
Container frame holding one or more thermal insulated tanks for liquids.

Insurance
A system of protection against loss under which a party agrees to pay a certain sum (premiums) for a guarantee that they will be compensated under certain conditions for loss or damage.

Insurance Certificate
Proof of an insurance contract provided by insurance vendor. Documents placement of insurance.

Insurance Company
The party covering the risks of the issued goods and/or services that are insured.

Integrated Logistics Support
The systematic approach applied to simultaneous management and acquisition of equipment and related logistics support, in order to provide the customer with a desired level of availability. Resulting in an optimum life cycle cost and to maintain this level through the entire life cycle.

Interchange
Reciprocal exchange of e.g. information between two or more parties.

Intercoastal
As opposite to coastal water operations, intercoastal refers to water transport carried out between coasts (e.g. between Pacific and Atlantic coasts).

Interline
Two or more road transport companies joining operations to bring cargo to a certain destination.

Interline Carrier
A carrier with whom another carrier has an interline agreement.

Intermodal Transport
The movement of goods (containers) in one and the same loading unit or vehicle which uses successively several modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves in changing modes.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
Abbreviation: IMDG Code
A code, representing the classification of dangerous goods as defined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in compliance with international legal requirements.

International Maritime Organization
Abbreviation: IMO
An United Nations agency concerned with safety at sea. Its work includes codes and rules relating to tonnage measurement of vessels, load lines, pollution and the carriage of dangerous goods. Its previous name was the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO).

International Medical Guide for Ships
Abbreviation: IMGS ‘The doctor at sea’.

International Organization for Standardization
Abbreviation: ISO
A worldwide federation of national standards institutes (ISO member bodies).

International Safety Management Code
This international standard for the safe management and operation of ships prescribes rules for the organization of a shipping company management in the context of safety and pollution prevention and requires the development and implementation of a safety management system.

Inventory
A detailed list of goods located in a certain space or belonging to a specified object. Goods available for satisfying certain demands. Inventories may consist of finished goods ready for sale, they may be parts or intermediate items, they may be work in process, or they may be raw materials.
Synonym: Stock.

Invoice
An account from the supplier, for goods and/or services supplied by him.

ISF
Importer Security Filing, also known as 10+2. Requires cargo information, for security purposes, to be transmitted to the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency at least 48 hours before goods are loaded onto an ocean vessel for shipment into the U.S.

ISO
See International Standards Organization.

Issuing Bank
Party to a L/C. This bank prepares the L/C that sets transaction terms and guarantees the buyer’s credit; i.e., the buyer has funds available to pay for the goods.

Item
Separate article or unit.

Itinerary
The route of a means of transport, indicated by the names of the ports of call or other locations, often including estimated arrival and


J

Jettison
The act of intentionally throwing cargo overboard e.g. with the objective of lightening a vessel, which has run aground, such for the common good of all interests: vessel, crew and remaining cargo (see GA).

Jetty
A mole or breakwater, running out into the sea to protect harbor or coast. It is sometimes used as a landing-pier.

Jib
1. Projecting arm of a crane.
2. Attachment connected to the top of a crane boom.

Job
That work which is undertaken to meet a customer or production order and, for production control purposes, has a unique identification.

Joint Venture
A joint activity of two or more companies, usually performed under a common name.

Jurisprudence
Juridical decisions used for explanation and meaning of law.


K

Kanban
1. A method which during storage uses standard units or lot sizes with a single card attached to each.
2. A pull system used at a stock point in which a supply batch is ordered only when a previous batch is withdrawn. Note: Kanban in Japanese means loosely translated ‘card or sign’.

Keel
Longitudinal girder at the lowest point of a vessel from which the framework is built.

Kind of Packing
Description of the packaging material used for goods to be transported.

King pin
The coupling pin, welded or bolted in the center of the front underside of a semi-trailer chassis, which couples to the fifth wheel of the towing tractor or dolly converter.

Knot
Unit of measurement for the speed (of a vessel) equal to a nautical mile (= 1852 meters) per hour.

Kyoto Convention
The convention for the International Customs Cooperation Council held in Kyoto in 1973 for the simplification and harmonization of national customs procedures.


L

Label
A slip of e.g. paper or metal attached to an object to indicate the nature, ownership, destination, contents and/or other particulars of the object.

Laden Vessel
See Loaden Vessel.

Land Bridge
Overland transport between following and/or preceding sea transport of goods and/or containers.

Lash
To hold goods in position by the use of e.g. wires, ropes, chains and straps.
See Lighter Aboard Ship.

Lashing Point
Point on a means of transport to which wires, chains, ropes or straps, which are used to hold goods in position, are attached.

Last In First Out
Abbreviation: LIFO
A method of which the assumption is that the most recently received (last in) is the first to be used or sold (first out).

Lateral and Front Stacking Truck
High-lift stacking truck capable of stacking and retrieving loads ahead and on either or both sides of the driving direction.

Latitude
The angular distance of a position on its meridian north or south from the equator, measured in degrees (‘a vessel at 25 degrees north latitude’).

Lay Days
The number of days allowed in a charter party for the loading and discharging of cargo. Lay days may be indicated in different ways e.g. consecutive days, working days, weather working days.

Layout Key
See United Nations Layout Key.

Lay Up a Vessel
Temporary cessation of trading of a vessel by the ship-owner.

L/C
See Letter of Credit.

LCL
See Less than Container Load.

Lead Time
The amount of time between the request of a service and the actual provision of this service. A span of time required to perform an activity. In a logistics context, the time between the initiation of a process and its completion.

Lease
A contract by which one party gives to another party the use of property or equipment, e.g. containers, for a specified time against fixed payments.

Leasing Company
The company from which property or equipment is taken on lease.

Leasing Contract
A contract for the leasing of property or equipment.

Less than Container Load
Abbreviation: LCL
A general reference for identifying cargo in any quantity intended for carriage in a container, where the Carrier is responsible for packing and/or unpacking the container. For operational purposes a LCL (Less than full container load) container is considered a container in which multiple consignments or parts thereof are shipped.

Less than Truck Load
Abbreviation: LTL
A term used if the quantity or volume of one or more consignment(s) does not fill a standard truck.

Lessee
The party to whom the possession of specified property has been conveyed for a period of time in return for rental payments.

Lessor
The party who conveys specified property to another for a period of time in return for the receipt of rent.

Letter of Credit
Abbreviation: L/C
A written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to the seller (beneficiary) at the request, and on the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to pay at sight or at a determinable future date up to a stated sum of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents.

Letter of Indemnity
Written statement in which one party undertakes to compensate another for the costs and consequences of carrying out a certain act. The issue of a letter of indemnity is sometimes used for cases when a shipper likes receiving a clean Bill of Lading while a carrier is not allowed to do so.

Liability
Legal responsibility for the consequences of certain acts or omissions.

Lien
A legal claim upon real or personal property to pay a debt or duty.

Life Cycle Cost
Encompasses all costs associated with the product’s life cycle. These include all costs involved in acquisition (research & development, design, production & construction, and phase-in), operation, support and disposal of the product.

LIFO
See Last In First Out. See Liner In Free Out.

Lift-On Lift-Off Vessel
Abbreviation: LOLO
essel of which the loading and discharging operations are carried out by cranes and derricks.

Lighter
See Barge.

Lighter Aboard Ship
Abbreviation: Lash
A vessel which carries barges.

Lighterage
The carriage of goods within a port area by a barge, e.g. from a vessel to a quay.

Lightweight
Weight of an empty vessel including equipment and outfit, spare parts required by the regulatory bodies, machinery in working condition and liquids in the systems, but excluding liquids in the storage tanks, stores and crew.

Line Item
See order line.

Line Number
See Flight Number.

Linear Programming
A mathematical procedure for minimizing or maximizing a linear function of several variables, subject to a finite number of linear restrictions on these variables.

Liner Conference
A group of two or more vessel-operating carriers, which provides international liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular trade route and which has an agreement or arrangement to operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions (e.g. FEFC = Far Eastern Freight Conference).

Liner In Free Out Abbreviation: LIFO Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of loading, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of discharging.

Liner Shipping Company
A company transporting goods over sea in a regular service.

Liner Terms
Condition of carriage denoting that costs for loading and unloading are borne by the carrier subject the custom of the port concerned.

Liner Service
The connection through vessels between ports within a trade.

Liquidation
Finalization of the import process related to a specific shipment.

Live Stock
Cargo consisting of live animals, such as horses, cows, sheep and chickens.

Load
Quantity or nature of what is being carried. This term normally refers to transport by truck.

Load Factor Management
The process of maximizing the utilization of the (slot) capacity of vessels and or other means of transport.

Loaden Vessel
Vessel where cargo has been put on board. Synonym: Laden Vessel.

Loading
The process of bringing cargo into a means of transport or equipment.

Loading Platform
A flat surface to facilitate loading usually alongside a warehouse.

Loadmaster
A load calculator designed for a vessel approved by a classification bureau for the calculation of the vessels stability.

Local Charge
See On-line Charge.

Local Rate
See On-line Rate.

Locating Pin
See Cones.

Location
Any named geographical place, recognized by a competent national body, with permanent facilities used for goods movements associated with international trade, and used frequently for these purposes. Geographical place such as a port, an airport, an inland freight terminal, a container freight station, a container yard, a container depot, a terminal or any other place where customs clearance and/or regular receipt or delivery of goods can take place. An area (e.g. in a warehouse) marked off or designated for a specific purpose.

Lock
For marine purposes: A space, enclosed at the sides by walls and at each end by gates, by which a vessel can be floated up or down to a different level.

Locker
A compartment, in a shed or on board of a vessel, used as a safekeeping place to stow valuable goods, which can be secured by means of a lock.

Log Book
The daily report of all events and other relevant particulars of a vessel and attested by the proper authorities as a true record.

Logistics (CEN)
The planning, execution and control

  • of the movement and placement of people and/or goods
  • and of the supporting activities related to such movement and placement within a system organized to achieve specific objectives.

Logistics chain
All successive links involved in the logistic process.

LOLO
See Lift-On Lift-Off Vessel.

Longitude
The angular distance of a position on the equator east or west of the standard Greenwich meridian up to 180o east or west.

LTL
See Less than Truck Load.

Luffing Crane
A crane with which the load can be moved to or from the crane horizontally.

Luggage
Traveler’s baggage, suitcases, boxes etc., normally accompanied by a passenger.

Lump-sum
An agreed sum of money, which is paid in full settlement at one time. This term is often used in connection with charter parties.

Lump-sum Charter
A voyage charter whereby the ship-owner agrees to place the whole or a part of the vessel’s capacity at the charterer’s disposal for which a lump-sum freight is being paid.


M

Maintenance Chain
A sequence of events in a goods flow which preserves and/or restores the value of a specific good. This may include repair.

Main-line Operator
Abbreviation: MLO
A carrier employing vessel(s) in the main or principal routes in a trade but not participating within a consortium.

Manifest
Document which lists the specifications of goods loaded in a means of transport or equipment for transportation purposes. As a rule cargo manifests are drawn up by the agents in the place of loading. Note: For shipping a manifest represents an accumulation of Bills of Lading for official and administrative purposes.

Manufacturers Plate
A plate indicating the name and address of the container manufacturer and particulars of the container.

Manufacturing Process
The producing of goods or wares by manual labor or machinery, often on a large scale and with division of labor.

Marine Insurance Policy
An insurance policy protecting the insured against loss or damage to his goods occurred during ocean transport.

Market Analysis
Systematic investigation of the growth and the composition of a market.

Marketing
The process of organizing and directing all the company activities which relate to determining the market demand and converting the customers buying power into an effective demand for a service and bringing that service to the customer.

Marks
See Shipping Marks.

Material Requirements Planning
Abbreviation: MRP-I
An inventory and purchasing planning system that integrates product components, lead times and deadlines.

Materials Handling
The activities of loading, unloading, placing and manipulating material and of in-process movement.

Materials Management
The planning and control of the activities related to the materials flow from the suppliers up to the end of the conversion/production process.

MCO
See Miscellaneous Charge Order.

Means of Transport
Type of vehicle used for the transport of goods (e.g. barge, truck, vessel or train).

Measurement Ton
A ton of one cubic meter water.

Mechanics Lien
The legal enforceable claim that a person who has performed work or provided materials is permitted to make against title to the property or as a preferential person in the event the estate or business is liquidated.

Medical First Aid Guide
Abbreviation: MFAG
Instructions to be consulted in case of accidents involving dangerous goods.

Memo Bill
See Service Bill of Lading.

Merchant
For cargo carried under the terms and conditions of the Carrier’s Bill of Lading and of a tariff, it means any trader or persons (e.g. Shipper, Consignee) and including anyone acting on their behalf, owning or entitled to possession of the goods.

Meta-centric Height
The distance between the center of gravity of a vessel and a fictitious point. If the metra-centric height is zero or negative, the vessel will heel or capsize.

MFAG
See Medical First Aid Guide.

Minimum Charge
The lowest amount, which applies to the transport of a consignment, irrespective of weight or volume.

Minimum Inventory
The planned minimum allowable inventory for an independent demand item.

Mode of Transport
Method of transport used for the conveyance of goods, (e.g. by rail, by road, by sea).

Model
A representation of a process or system that attempts to relate the most important variables in the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system.

Module
A separate and distinct unit of hardware or software that may be used as a component in a system.

Movement
The act or process of changing the position of an object and or people.

Movement Inventory
The inventory during a production process caused by the time required to move goods from one place to another.

MPC
See Multi Purpose Carrier.

MPS
See Master Production Schedule.

MRP-I
See Material Requirements Planning.

MRP-II
See Manufacturing Resource Planning.

MTO/Carrier
See Multi Transport Operator/Carrier.

Multiple Sourcing
Selecting of and working with more than two equivalent suppliers for a certain product.

Multi Purpose Carrier
See Multi Purpose Vessel.

Multi Purpose Vessel
Vessel designed for the carriage of different types of cargo: general, bulk, heavy and/or containerized cargo.
Synonym: Multi Purpose Carrier (MPC).

Multimodal Transport
The carriage of goods (containers) by at least two different modes of transport.

Multimodal Transport Document
See Combined Transport Document.

Multimodal Transport Operator/Carrier
Abbreviation: MTO/Carrier
The person on whose behalf the transport document or any document evidencing a contract of multimodal carriage of goods is issued and who is responsible for the carriage of goods pursuant to the contract of carriage.


N

NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement. A preferential trade agreement among Canada, Mexico and the United States covering trade in goods, technical barriers to trade, government procurement, investment, services and related matters, intellectual property, administrative, institutional and other provisions.

Negligence
Imprudent action or omission which may cause injury, damage or loss.

Negotiable
In terms of documents, ‘negotiable’ means that e.g. a Bill of Lading is handed over/transferred in the right manner (viz. proper endorsement) to another person either endorsed in blank or endorsed to a person and that person acquires, by this transfer certain rights vis-a-vis the goods e.g. is entitled to take possession of the goods.

Net Manifest
A manifest containing all freight details including negotiated disbursements.

Net Tonnage
The measure of the useful capacity of a vessel determined in accordance with the provisions of the international convention on tonnage measurement of vessels.

Net Weight
The weight of the goods, excluding all packing.

Network Planning System
A technique for making a time schedule for the implementation of a project.

Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier
Abbreviation: NVOCC
A shipment consolidator or freight forwarder who does not own any vessel, but functions as a carrier by issuing its own bills of lading or air waybills and assuming responsibility for the shipments.

Normal Rate
See Normal General Cargo Rate.

Notice of Readiness
Written document or telex issued by the master of a vessel to the charterers advising them the moment when a vessel is ready to load or discharge. Document advising a consignee or his agent that cargo has arrived and is ready for delivery.

Notify Address
Address of the party other than the consignee to be advised of the arrival of the goods.

Notify Party
The party to be notified of arrival of goods.

NVOCC
See Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier.


O

Ocean Bill of Lading
See On-Board Ocean Bill of Lading

Offshore
Contracting work carried out at sea (e.g. drilling for oil).

Oil Bulk Ore Vessel
Abbreviation: OBO-Vessel
A vessel, designed for the carriage of either dry or liquid bulk cargo.

On Board Ocean Bill of Lading
Document issued by the steamship company indicating the freight covered by the bill of lading has been physically loaded aboard ship for transit. This document is usually not released to the shipper until the ship has set sail.

On-line Charge
The charge which applies to carriage over the lines of a single carrier (aircargo). Synonyms: Local Charge, Local Rate, On-line Rate.

On-line Rate
See On-line Charge.

On-carriage
The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport to the place of delivery after discharge from the ocean vessel (main means of transport) at the port (place) of discharge.

One Way Pallet
See disposable pallet. Note: The addition ‘One Way’ has nothing to do with the number of pallet sides in which the forks of e.g. a fork lift can enter, as opposed to the two and four way pallets.

Open Account
Method of payment for goods. Seller and buyer agree on payment terms; freight and necessary documents are sent to buyer. The buyer generally has 60 to 90 days to reimburse the seller (with no interest charges). The seller carriers all the risk in this situation.

Open Order
See Backlog.

Open Sided Container
Shipping container with frames with wire-mesh at the sides covered by means of a tarpaulin which can be dropped down to give unrestricted access to the sides of the container for loading or discharging.

Open Top Container
A freight container similar in all respects to a general purpose container except that it has no rigid roof but may have a flexible and movable or removable cover, for example one made of canvas or plastic or reinforced plastic material normally supported on movable or removable roof bows.

Operating Efficiency A ratio of the actual output of a piece of equipment, department, or plant as compared to the planned or standard output.

Operations Research
The development and application of quantitative techniques to the solution of problems. More specifically, theory and methodology in mathematics, statistics, and computing are adapted and applied to the identification, formulation, solution, validation, implementation, and control of decision making problems.

Operator
The party responsible for the day to day operational management of certain premises such as ware-houses, terminals and vessels.

Optimal Trim
The best calculated TRIM related to speed engine capacity, fuel consumption for a specific sailing condition.

Optimization
Achieving the best possible solution to a problem in terms of a specified objective function.

Option
One of a limited range of choices or features that is offered to a customer when purchasing an otherwise basic standard product and that has to be an integral part of the product (used in commercial trading).

Optional Cargo
Cargo of which the final destination is not known at the moment of booking but will be indicated during the transport.

Optional Port
A port of which it is not known whether or not it will be called by a vessel during a voyage.

Order
A request to deliver specified quantities of goods or to render specific services.

Order line
Each line on a customer’s purchase order. An order line always contains one Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) only, but the number may vary.

Organization
An identifiable social unit with a particular responsibility which endeavor to achieve multiple goals by coordinated activities and relationships between members and objects.

Out of Gauge Cargo
Cargo which dimensions are exceeding the normal dimensions of a 20 or 40 feet container, e.g. overlength, overwidth, overheight, or combinations thereof.

Outsider
A carrier, which operates on a route served by a liner conference but which is not a member of that conference.

Outturn Report
Written statement by a stevedoring company in which the condition of cargo discharged from a vessel is noted along with any discrepancies in the quantity compared with the vessel’s manifest.

Outward Handling
The operations to be performed on outgoing goods from a production unit, both administrative and physical, starting at the moment forwarding orders can be executed to the moment of actual departure of the goods.

Overcarrier
A carrier within a consortium who carries cargo beyond the allotment distributed to him.

Overheight Cargo
Cargo, exceeding the standard height.

Overlength Cargo
Cargo, exceeding the standard length.

Overtime
Work beyond normal established working hours which usually requires a premium to be paid to the employees concerned.

Overwidth Cargo
Cargo, exceeding the standard width.

Owner
The legal owner of cargo, equipment or means of transport.

Owner’s Container Code
See Container Prefix.


P

Package
1. Any physical piece of cargo in relation to transport consisting of the contents and its packing for the purpose of ease of handling by manual or mechanical means.
2. The final product of the packing operation consisting of the packing and its contents to facilitate manual or mechanical handling.
Synonym: Parcel.

Packaging
Materials used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods and the activities of placing and securing goods in those materials.

Packing
Any container or other covering in which goods are packed

Packing List
Document that itemizes shipment contents. Should include weight (gross and net), dimensions, contents, numbering of each parcel within the shipment, and any identifying characteristics (e.g., serial numbers). It also can be used to identify damages or shortages; the buyer only pays duty on what was actually received. Customers must present a packing list for all export shipments.

Packing Instruction
Document issued within an enterprise giving instructions on how goods are to be packed.

Packing List
Document specifying the contents of each individual package.

Packing Unit
A type of package where a standard quantity of products of a specific product type can be packed and that requires no additional packaging for storage and shipment.

Pallet
A platform on which goods can be stacked in order to facilitate the movement by a fork lift or sling.

Pallet Converter
Superstructure which can be applied to a pallet to convert it into either a box or post pallet

Pallet Rack
A skeleton framework, of fixed or adjustable design, to support a number of individual pallet loads.

Pallet Truck
Pedestrian- or rider-controlled non-stacking lift truck fitted with forks.

Panamax Size
The maximum measurements and dimensions of a vessel capable to pass the Panama Canal

Parcel
See Package.

Particular Average
A fortuitous partial loss to the subject matter insured, proximately caused by an insured peril but which is not a general average loss. Particular average only relates to damage and/or expenses which are exclusively borne by the owners of a vessel which has sustained damage as a result of e.g. heavy weather or by the owners of the cargo, which has been damaged in transit.

Partition
See Divider.

Payee
A party to whom a payment is made or owed

Payer
A party who pays or is to pay

Payload
The revenue-producing load carried by a means of transport.

Payment
That which discharges a debt

Payment Against Documents
Instructions given by a seller to a bank to the effect that the buyer may collect the documents necessary to obtain delivery of the goods only upon actual payment of the invoice.

Performance Indicator
A variable indicating the effectiveness and/or efficiency of a process.

Performance Measurement
The comparison of the results of business processes with each other or with standards in order to know the effectiveness of these processes and/or the supportive actions.

Physical Distribution
Those activities related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer.

Physical Distribution Management
The planning execution and control of those activities which are related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer

Pick and Pack
Taking goods out of a stock and packing them according to customer conditions.

Pick Order
An order to pick certain quantities of goods out of a stock.

Pick Up and Delivery
A service concerning the collection of cargo from the premises of the consignor and the delivery to the premises of the consignee.

Picking
Taking products or components out of a stock.

Picking List
A list used to collect items from stores needed to fulfil an order. Synonym: Material issue list, Kitting list.

Pier
See quay.

Piers Data
General information on import and export shipments that can provide business leads. Includes shipper name, commodity, shipment weight, and origin and destination ports.

Piggyback
The carriage of road vehicles and trailers on railway wagons. Synonym: Huckepack Carriage.

Pilferage
Petty stealing of goods from a ship’s hold, cargo shed or warehouse.

Pilot
Local expert advising a vessel’s captain on safe navigation in those areas where the captain is ignorant of local circumstances or where it is obligatory to take a pilot.

Pipeline
A line of pipes for conveying liquids and gasses. The physical goods flow from a supplying organization to a receiving organization.

Pipeline Inventory
The amount of goods in a pipeline: the sum of loading stock, goods in transit and receiving stock. Synonym: Floating Stock.

Place of Acceptance
See place of receipt.

Place of Delivery
The location where a consignment (shipment) is delivered to the consignee viz. the place where the carrier’s liability ends for the transport venture.

Place of Receipt
The location where a consignment (shipment) is received by the carrier from the shipper viz. the place where the carrier’s liability for transport venture commences. Synonym: Place of Acceptance.

Placement
The activity of positioning an object or goods in a chosen location or position

Planning
The setting of goals over a certain time and the determination of how to achieve these goals and with what resource

Planning Horizon
The period of time to which a certain particular plan relates.

Platform
The bare floor of a container, suitable for the carriage of uncontainerable cargo, as several platforms can be placed together to provide a larger base. Plated for the carriage of heavy goods. 20′ and 40′

Platform Body
A truck or trailer without ends, sides or top but with only a floor.

Plimsoll Mark
A mark, welded on both sides of the vessel, which gives the limit to which a vessel may be loaded, depending on the specific gravity of the water in which the vessel is situated.

Pontoon
A vessel with flat deck and a shallow draft.

Pool
The shared use of e.g. equipment by a number of companies, which make together the investments in the equipment mentioned.

Poop A
ft part of a vessel where the steering engine is located

Port
Harbor having facilities for vessels to moor and load or discharge. Left side of a vessel when facing towards the front or forward end.

Port of Call
Place where a vessel actually drops anchor or moors during a certain voyage.

Port of Discharge/Unloading
The port where the cargo is actually discharged (unloaded) from the sea (ocean) going vessel.

Port of Entry
The port where the customs entry is filed.

Port of Loading
The port where the cargo is actually loaded on board the sea (ocean) going vessel.

Portal Crane
A type of gantry crane with vertical legs of sufficient height and width to permit vehicles or railroad equipment to pass between the legs.

Portlog
A statement concerning a vessel containing the actual arrival and departure time used tugs, draft, deadweight, quantity of discharged and loaded goods/containers and any other important particulars.

Positioning
The transport of empty equipment from a depot to shipper’s premises or from consignee’s premises back to a depot as the empty leg of a carrier haulage transport.

Postal Code
A national code maintained by the Postal Authorities designed to indicate areas and accumulated addresses to facilitate sorting and the delivery of mail and other goods. Note: The coding system is different in the various countries throughout the world. In the Netherlands the code consists of 4 figures and 2 characters.

Power of Attorney
Legal ability or authority given by one individual or firm to another individual or firm to act on behalf of the first in specific matter. With regard to import shipments, power of attorney allows Yellow to arrange Customs clearance within the Yellow International program.

Practice
That what has become customary as a result of repeated acts.

Preadvice
Notice to partners of freight/containers destined to them. Copy of manifest should suffice.

Precarriage T
he carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport from the place of receipt to the port (place) of loading into the ocean vessel (main means of transport).

Precarrier
The carrier by which the goods are moved prior to the main transport.

Preshipment Inspection
Abbreviation: PSI
The checking of goods before shipment for the purpose of determining the quantity and/or quality of said goods by an independent surveyor (inspection company) for phytosanitary, sanitary and veterinary controls. Presently there is a tendency by developing countries to use the inspection also for the purpose of determining whether the price charged for certain goods is correct.

Pre-slinging
The act of placing goods in slings which are left in position and used for loading into and discharging from a conventional vessel.

Pre-trip Inspection
Abbreviation: PTI
A technical inspection of Reefer containers prior to positioning for stuffing.

Principal
Person for whom another acts as agent.

Principal Carrier
See Responsible Carrier.

Principal Corporate Body
The company that owns the various subsidiary companies or branches acting as customers on their own and is registered as the corporate customer for statistical purposes.

Priority Order
An order which is identified as taking precedence over other orders to ensure its completion in the minimum time. Synonym: Urgent order, Rush order.

Private Warehouse
A warehouse operated by the owner of the goods stored there.

Pro Forma Invoice
Draft invoice sent to an importer by the exporter prior to order confirmation and shipment to assist in matters relating to obtaining import licenses or foreign exchange allocations, or simply to advise the value of a consignment so that letters of credit can be opened.

Procurement
The activities which ensure the availability of the material and or services in the desired quantity, quality, place and time from the supplier.

Procurement Logistics
Control of the flow of materials up to the manufacturing process.

Product
A result, end item or output from a certain process.

Product Chain
All phases in the transformation or production process of one product.

Product Life Cycle
The period of time between the introduction date and end date of a product in the market. Note: Phases are introduction, growth, maturity, saturation, decline & end.

Production
1. The conversion of materials and or assembly of components to manufacture goods, products or services.
2. The total quantity of goods manufactured or to be manufactured in a particular period of time expressed in quantitative or financial terms. (The term manufacturing is often used specifically for physical operations resulting in a product).

Productivity Relative measure of output of labor hour or machine hour.

Profit Center
An organizational unit which will be held responsible for its own profits and losses.

Project Cargo
Quantity of goods connected to the same project and often carried on different moments and from various places.

Proof of Delivery
The receipt signed by the consignee upon delivery.

Proper Shipping Name
A name to be used to describe particular goods on all shipping documents and notifications and, if appropriate, on the goods.

Protocol
A statement drawn up to attest certain events.

Public Authorities
The agencies or officials in a state responsible for the application and enforcement of the laws and regulations of that state.
Source: IMO.

Public Warehouse
A warehouse which is available to all companies and persons who wish to make use of the services offered.

Pull Distribution System
A system to provide warehouses with new stock on request of the warehouse management.

Purchase Order
A definite order for one or more deliveries by the supplier to the customer of a specific quantity of goods, materials, services or products under agreed terms of delivery and prices.

Push Distribution System
A system to provide warehouses with new stock upon decision of the supplier of the goods.


Q

Qualifier
A data element whose value shall be expressed as a code that gives specific meaning to the function of another data element or a segment.

Quarantine
The period during which an arriving vessel, including its equipment, cargo, crew or passengers, suspected to carry or carrying a contagious disease is detained in strict isolation to prevent the spread of such a disease.

Quay
That part of a wharf that is intended for the mooring of vessels.
Synonym: pier.

Queue
A stored arrangement of computer data, programs or messages, waiting to be processed in the order in which they were submitted.

Quoin
Timber wedge used to secure drums against movement.

Quotas
A system of controlling imports, exports or production by specifying a certain limitation.

Quotation
Amount stated as the price according to tariff for certain services to be provided or issued to a customer with specification on conditions for carriage.

Quotation expiration date
The date as from which a quotation-price is no longer valid.


R

Rail Car
A wheeled wagon used for the carriage of cargo by rail.

Rail Consignment Note
A document evidencing a contract for the transport of goods by rail.

Ramp
An artificial inclined path, road or track along which wheeled vehicles, cargo and trailers may pass for the purpose of changing their elevation and facilitating the loading and unloading operation (e.g. an entrance way into a Roll-on Roll-off vessel).

Ramp Handling
See Platform Handling.

Rate
1. The price of a transport service.
2. Quantity, amount or degree measured or applied.

Rate of Calculation
A factor for the calculation of an amount.

Rate of Turn
The figure indicating the speed of a change of course of a means of transport expressed in degrees per minute.

Rate Request Form
Document information for proposed pricing.

Rating
A class to which an article is assigned.

Rebate
That part of a transport charge which the carrier agrees to return.

Receipt
A written acknowledgement, that something has been received.

Receiving Stock
The stock comprising all the goods that have arrived at the door of the receiving organization and which is not yet available in the stock of that organization.

Reconditioning
All activities connected with restoring and or adjusting the packaging of a product. In such manner that it can be presented to the customer in the requested form.

Reconditioning of Garments
The act or process of bringing garments after transport in shop’s condition.

Reefer Cargo
Cargo requiring temperature control.

Reefer Container
A thermal container with refrigerating appliances (mechanical compressor unit, absorption unit etc.) to control the temperature of cargo.

Refund
The repayment to the purchaser of the total charge or a portion of that charge for unused carriage.

Region
Specified geographical area for operational purposes.

Register Ton
The unit of measurement for the internal capacity of a vessel whereby one register ton equals 100 cubic feet (2.83 cubic meter). The gross (bruto) tonnage comprises all spaces below the main (tonnage) deck and the enclosed spaces above the main (tonnage) deck less exempted spaces. The net tonnage consists of the gross tonnage less exemptions like ballast tanks, engine room, living quarters etc. The register tonnages are mentioned on the tonnage certificate.

Regroupage
The process of splitting up shipments into various consignments (degroupage) and combining these small consignments into other shipments (groupage).

Re-invoicing
The procedure whereby goods shipped directly from a supplier to the customer are invoiced in two stages: at first by the supplier to an intermediary and subsequently by the intermediary to the customer.

Rejection
Non-acceptance of cargo.

Reliability of Delivery
The reliability of a supplier concerning the agreed terms of delivery with regard to the quality, quantity, delivery time, conditions and price.

Replacement
Indicating that a subject is interchangeable with another subject, but which differs physically from the original subject in that the installation of the replacement subject requires extra machining or provisions in addition to the normal application and methods of attachment.

Replenishment
Completion of stock.

Reserve Inventory
See Safety Stock.

Responsible Carrier
The carrier liable under the terms of a consortium Bill of Lading. Synonym: Principal Carrier.

Returns
Goods returned to their place of acceptance.

Revenue
Amounts of income stemming from the provision of transport services.

Reverse Distribution
The collection of used, damaged, or outdated products and/or packaging from end-users.

Rinacertificate
Certificate issued by the Italian Government for carrying dangerous goods in Italian Waters.

RLF
A program for electronic entry filers which allows the transmission of entry/ entry summary data from one location for cargo arriving at a second location in which the filer is not located (if an importer) or is not licensed (if a broker).

Road Carrier
Party undertaking transport by road of goods from one point to another such as indicated in the contract.
Synonym: Haulier.

Road Vehicle
A means of transport capable and allowed to move over public roads and other landways.

Roll Trailer
Special trailer for terminal haulage and stowage on board of Roll-on Roll-off vessels.
Also referred to as Mafi Trailer.

Rolling Resistance
The total frictional force that a tire, a set of tires or all the tires on a vehicle is developing with the road.

Roll-on Roll-off
Abbreviation: RoRo.
System of loading and discharging a vessel whereby the cargo is driven on and off by means of a ramp.

RoRo
See Roll-on Roll-off.

Rotation
Sequence in which a vessel calls at the ports on her itinerary.

Round Trip
A voyage, a journey etc. to a certain place, port or country and back again.

Route
The track along which goods are (to be) transported.

Routing
1. The determination of the most efficient route(s) that people, goods, materials and or means of transport have to follow.
2. The process of determining how a shipment will be moved between consignor and consignee or between place of acceptance by the carrier and place of delivery to the consignee. 3. The process of aiding a vessel’s navigation by supplying long range weather forecasts and indicating the most economic and save sailing route.

Row
A vertical division of a vessel from starboard to portside, used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers. The numbers run from midships to both sides.


S

Safe Working Load
Abbreviation: SWL
The maximum load any lifting appliance may handle.

Safety Stock 
1. In general, a quantity of stock planned to be in inventory to protect against fluctuations in demand and/or supply.
2. In the context of master production scheduling, safety stock can refer to additional inventory and/or capacity planned as protection against forecast errors and/or short term changes in the backlog. Also referred to as ‘overplanning’ or a ‘market hedge’.
Synonym: Reserve Inventory.

Said to Contain 
Abbreviation: STC
Term in a Bill of Lading signifying that the master and the carrier are unaware of the nature or quantity of the contents of e.g. a carton, crate, container or bundle and are relying on the description furnished by the shipper.

Salvage 
The saving or rescue of a vessel and/or the cargo from loss and/or damage at sea.

SCAC
Standard Carrier Alpha Code. The carrier identifier issued by the National Motor Freight Traffic Association (NMFTA).

Scale Ton 
Freighting measurement used in certain trades for various commodities.

Schedule 
A timetable including arrival/departure times of ocean- and feeder vessels and also inland transportation. It refers to named ports in a specific voyage (journey) within a certain trade indicating the voyage number(s). In general, the plan of times for starting and/or finishing activities.

Schedule B Number 
Classification number assigned to freight. Used to identify U.S. exports by product and regulate the exportation of controlled commodities. Coincides with the harmonized system, which contains additional identifying numerics.

SCP 
Simplified Clearance Procedure. A procedure covering non-restricted goods which enables approved exporters or agents to export goods on presentation of minimum information. The full statistical information is supplied within 14 days of shipment.

SCR 
See Specific Commodity Rate.

SDD 
Scheduled Delivery date. PC-based system used to calculate delivery dates based on date shipped, optimum shipping dates based on required arrival date and rates.

SDR 
See Special Drawing Rights.

Seal 
A device used for containers, lockers, trucks or lorries to proof relevant parties that they have remained closed during transport.

Seal Log 
A document used to record seal numbers.

Seasonal Inventory
Inventory built up in anticipation of a seasonal peak of demand in order to smooth production.

Seaworthiness 
Fitness of a vessel to travel in open sea mostly related to a particular voyage with a particular cargo.

SED 
Shipper’s Export Declaration. This form includes a general description of the freight, the Schedule B number, value country of destination, and export license number if applicable. The SED serves two purposes: to give some control over shipments of sensitive commodities or shipments destined to unfriendly countries; to gather statistical data on exports. Also used by the shipper to compile quarterly reporting required by Customs on exports.

Segregation 
Distance required by the rules of IMDG or BC codes between the various commodities of dangerous and or bulk cargoes.

Seller’s Market 
A ‘seller’s market’ is considered to exist when goods cannot easily be secured and when the economic forces of business tend to be priced at the vendor’s estimate of value. In other words, a state of trade favourable to the seller, with relatively great demand and high prices of something for sale.

Semi Trailer 
A vehicle without motive power and with one or more axles designed to be drawn by a truck tractor and constructed in such way that a portion of its weight and that of its load rest upon e.g. the fifth wheel of the towing vehicle.

Sender 
See Shipper.

Service Bill 
A service Bill (of Lading) is a contract of carriage issued by one carrier to another for documentary and internal control purposes (e.g. in case MIQ Global cargo is carried on a non MIQ Global vessel) Synonym: Memo Bill of Lading For internal documentary and control purposes a so-called participating agent in a consortium uses some kind of document which, depending on the trade, is referred to as ‘Memo Bill’ which will among others state:

  • Name of Carrier on whose behalf the original document (Way Bill, Bill of Lading, etc.) was issued.
  • The original document number.
  • The agent who issued the original document and his opponent at the discharging side.
  • The number of packages, weight and measurement, marks and numbers and goods description.
  • Further mandatory details in case of special cargo.
  • No freight details will be mentioned and the Memo Bill is not a contract of carriage.

See Bill of Lading.

Service Level
A measure for the extent to which the customer orders can be executed at delivery conditions normally accepted in the market.

Setting/Air Delivery Temperature
An indication in the documents (B/L) stating the air supply temperature to the container. Note: No other details than this temperature shall be included in the Bill of Lading.

Shed 
See Warehouse.

Shelf Life 
The specified length of time prior to use for which items, which are inherently subject to deterioration, are deemed to remain fit for use under prescribed conditions.
Synonym: Storage life.

Shift 
Part of the work-program of a stevedoring company (a working day can have up to 3 shifts (24 hours).

Ship 
See Vessel.

Ship Broker 
Acts as intermediary between ship-owners or carriers by sea on the one hand and cargo interests on the other. The functions are to act as forwarding agent or custom broker, fixing of charters, and acting as chartering agent.

Ship’s Protest 
Statement of the master of a vessel before (in the presence of) competent authorities, concerning exceptional events which occurred during a voyage.

Shipment 
A separately identifiable collection of goods to be carried; also see Consignment. Note: In the United States of America the word shipment is used instead of the word consignment.

Ship operator
A ship operator is either the ship-owner or the (legal) person responsible for the actual management of the vessel and its crew.

Ship owner 
The (legal) person officially registered as such in the certificate of registry where the following particulars are contained:

  • Name of vessel and port of registry.
  • Details contained in surveyor’s certificate.
  • The particulars respecting the origin stated in the declaration of ownership.
  • The name and description of the registered owner, if more than one owner the proportionate share of each.

Shipper 
The merchant (person) by whom, in whose name or on whose behalf a contract of carriage of goods has been concluded with a carrier or any party by whom, in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in relation to the contract of carriage.
Synonym: Consignor, Sender.

Shipper’s Export Declaration 
Abbreviation: SED
A United States customs form to be completed for all exports to assist the government in compiling export statistics.

Shipper’s Letter of Instruction 
Abbreviation: SLI
A document containing instructions given by the shipper or the shipper’s agent for preparing documents and forwarding.

Shipping Documents 
Documents required for the carriage of goods.
Synonym: Transport Documents.

Shipping Instruction 
Document advising details of cargo and exporter’s requirements of its physical movement.

Shipping Label 
A label attached to a shipping unit, containing certain data.

Shipping Marks 
The identification shown on individual packages in order to help in moving it without delay or confusion to its final destination and to enable the checking of cargo against documents.
Synonym: Marks.

Shipping Note 
Document provided by the shipper or his agent to the carrier, multimodal transport operator, terminal or other receiving authority, giving information about export consignments offered for transport, and providing for the necessary receipts and declarations of liability.

Shortage 
The negative difference between actual available or delivered quantity and the required quantity.

Shrink Wrapping 
Heat treatment that shrinks an envelope of polyethylene or similar substance around several units, thus forming one unit. It is used e.g. to secure packages on a pallet.

Shut-out 
Containers not carried on intended vessel.

Shuttle Service
The carriage back and forth over an often short route between two points.

SIC 
See Standard Industrial Classification.

Siding 
A short railroad track connected with a main track by a switch to serve a warehouse or an industrial area.

Sight Draft 
Method of payment for goods. Used if seller wishes to retain control over the goods until the buyer actually pays for them. The buyer must make full payment to her/her bank before receiving the necessary documents to take possession of the freight. Similar to C.O.D.

Simulation 
The imitation of the reality for studying the effect of changing parameters in a model as a means of preparing a decision.

Skeleton Trailer 
Road trailer consisting of a frame and wheels, specially designed to carry containers. See chassis.

Skids 
Battens fitted underneath frames, boxes or packages to raise them off the floor and allow easy access for fork lift trucks, slings or other handling equipment.

Sliding Tandem 
An undercarriage with a subframe having provision for convenient fore and aft adjustment of its position on the chassis/semi-trailer. The purpose being to be able to shift part of the load to either the king pin or the suspension to maximize legally permitted axle loads (road cargo).

SLI 
Shipper’s Letter of Instructions. This form is completed by the shipper instead of a bill of lading and contains all pertinent shipment information. Yellow International’s SLI also provides necessary authorization if no MSA is on file with Yellow.

Sling
Special chain, wire rope, synthetic fibre strap or ropes used for cargo handling purposes.

Slot 
The space on board a vessel, required by one TEU, mainly used for administrative purposes.

Slot Charter 
A voyage charter whereby the ship-owner agrees to place a certain number of container slots (TEU and/or FEU) at the charterer’s disposal.

SOB – Shipped on board 
An endorsement on a B/L confirming loading of goods on the vessel. See also Cell Position.

Space Charter 
A voyage charter whereby the ship-owner agrees to place part of the vessels capacity at the charterer’s disposal.

Special Drawing Rights 
Abbreviation: SDR
Unit of account from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), i.e. used to express the amount of the limitations of a carrier’s liability.

Special Rate 
A rate other than a normal rate.

Specific Commodity Rate 
A rate applicable to carriage of specifically designated commodities.

Spoke 
The stretch between a hub and one of the group of consignees and/or consignors being served by the hub.

Spontaneous Ignition Temperature 
The lowest temperature at which a substance will start burning spontaneously without an external source of ignition.

Spreader 
Device used for lifting containers and unitized cargo. Beam or frame that holds the slings vertical when hoisting a load, to prevent damage to cargo.

Stability 
The capacity of a vessel to return to its original position after having been displaced by external forces. The stability of a vessel depends on the meta-centric height.

Stack 
An identifiable amount of containers stowed in a orderly way in one specified place on an (ocean) terminal, container freight station, container yard or depot (see container stack).

Stacking 
To pile boxes, bags, containers etc. on top of each other.

Stack weight 
The total weight of the containers and cargo in a certain row.

Standard Costs 
A carefully prepared estimate of the cost of performing a given operation under specified conditions. In MIQ Global, standard costs are determined for operations called ‘standard Work Orders’. Note: A standard work order describes a standard operation for which a standard cost is to be established.

Standard Industrial Classification 
Abbreviation: SIC
A method, used in the United States, to categorize companies into different industrial groupings.

Standard Product Module 
Abbreviation: SPM
The building blocks used by business management to define services (shipment products) which can be offered to customers. They describe a more or less isolated set of activities with a standard cost attached to it. For operations management each module defines a combination of standard operations that needs to be carried out for a customer. Note: SPM’s can be regarded as the interface between business and operations management.

Starboard 
Right side of a vessel when facing towards the front or forward end. STC  See Said To Contain.

Steering of Containers 
The function, with the aid of specific software for tracking and forecasting (IRMA, MINKA), to direct empty containers to demanding areas at minimum costs.

Stem 
The foremost part of a vessel.

Stern 
The aftermost part of a vessel.

Stock 
The materials in a supply chain or in a segment of a supply chain, expressed in quantities, locations and or values. Synonym: Inventory when used as a generic term, common in the USA and extensive in the UK.

Stock Control
The systematic administration of stocklevels with respect to quantity at all times.

Stock Keeping Unit 
The description of the unit of measurement by which the stock items are recorded on the stock record.

Stock Locator System 
A system in which all places within a warehouse are named or numbered.

Stock Point 
A point in the supply chain meant to keep materials available.

Stock Record 
A record of the quantity of stock of a single item, often containing a history of recent transactions and information for controlling the replenishment of stock.

Storage
The activity of placing goods into a store or the state of being in store (e.g. a warehouse).

Storage Charge 
The fee for keeping goods in a warehouse.

Stores 
Provisions and supplies on board required for running a vessel.

Stowage 
The placing and securing of cargo or containers on board a vessel or an aircraft or of cargo in a container.

Stowage Factor 
Ratio of a cargo’s cubic measurement to its weight, expressed in cubic feet to the ton or cubic meters to the ton, used in order to determine the total quantity of cargo which can be loaded in a certain space.

Stowage Instructions
Imperative details about the way certain cargo is to be stowed, given by the shipper or his agent.

Stowage Plan 
A plan indicating the locations on the vessel of all the consignments for the benefit of stevedores and vessel’s officers.

Stowaway 
An unwanted person who hides on board of a vessel or an aircraft to get free passage, to evade port officials etc.

Straddle Carrier
Wheeled vehicle designed to lift and carry shipping containers within its own framework. It is used for moving, and sometimes stacking, shipping containers at a container terminal.

Straddle Crane 
A crane usually running on rails and spanning an open area such as rail-tracks or roadways.

Strap
A band of metal, plastic or other flexible material used to hold cargo or cases together.

Stripping 
The unloading of cargo out of a container.
Synonym: Devanning, Unstuffing, Unpacking.

Stuffing 
The loading of cargo into a container.
Synonym: Vanning, Packing.

Suboptimizing 
Striving for optimum performance in one element of an organization disregarding the effects this may cause to the performance of the other elements. In other words, a solution for a problem that is best from a narrow point of view but not from a higher or overall company point of view.

Substretch 
Part of a stretch. This term is used if it is necessary to distinguish between a stretch and a part thereof.

Supercargo 
Experienced officer assigned by the charterer of a vessel to advise the management of the vessel and protect the interests of the charterer.

Supply Chain 
A sequence of events in a goods flow which adds to the value of a specific good. These events may include:

  • conversion
  • assembling and/or disassembling
  • movements and placements

Supply Vessel 
Vessel which carries stock and stores to offshore drilling rigs, platforms.

Surcharge 
An additional charge added to the usual or customary freight.

Surety Bond
This is a bond posted by the importer to guarantee payment of U.S. Customs duties.

Survey 
An inspection of a certain item or object by a recognized specialist.

Surveyor 
A specialist who carries out surveys. Note: A surveyor is quite representing a classification bureau or a governmental body.

SWL 
See Safe Working Load.

Swop Body 
Separate unit without wheels to carry cargo via road sometimes equipped with legs to be used to carry cargo intermodal within Europe. The advantage being that this unit can be left behind to load or discharge whilst the driver with the truck/chassis can change to another unit. These units are not used for sea transport.

Synergy 
The simultaneous joint action of separate parties which, together, have greater total effect than the sum of their individual effects.

System 
A whole body of connected elements which influence each other and have specific relations with the environment.


T

Tallyman
A person who records the number of cargo items together with the condition thereof at the time it is loaded into or discharged from a vessel.

Tank Container 
A tank, surrounded by a framework with the overall dimensions of a container for the transport of liquids or gasses in bulk.

Tanker 
A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk.

Tare Mass of Container
See Tare Weight of Container.

Tare Weight of Container 
Mass of an empty container including all fittings and appliances associated with that particular type of container on its normal operating condition. Synonym: Tare Mass of Container.

Tariff 
The schedule of rates, charges and related transport conditions.

Tarpaulin 
Waterproof material, e.g. canvas, to spread over cargo to protect it from getting wet.

TEDIS 
See Trade Electronic Data Interchange Systems.

Terminal 
A location on either end of a transportation line including servicing and handling facilities.

Terms of Delivery 
All the conditions agreed upon between trading partners regarding the delivery of goods and the related services. Note: Under normal circumstances the INCO terms are used to prevent any misunderstandings.

Terms of Freight 
All the conditions agreed upon between a carrier and a merchant about the type of freight and charges due to the carrier and whether these are prepaid or are to be collected. Note: The so-called Combi terms based on the INCO terms do make a distinction what of the freight and related costs is to be paid by the seller and what by the buyer. In the UN recommendation 23 a coding system is recommended to recognize the various items.

TEU 
Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit. A standard of measure used to indicate container vessel or terminal capacity. Twenty foot container s are often referred to as TEUs.

Thermal Container 
A container built with insulating walls, doors, floor and roof by which heat exchange with the environment is minimized thus limiting temperature variations of the cargo.

Third Party Logistics 
Supply of logistics related operations between traders by an independent organization.

Through Charge 
The total rate from point of departure to point of destination. It may be a joint rate or a combination of rates (aircargo). Synonym: Through Rate.

Through Rate 
See Through Charge.

TIB 
(Temporary In Bond) Posted by the importer to avoid paying duties on freight that is to be re-exported. This arrangement allows foreign goods to enter the U.S. for a limited period of time (six months to three years) without payment of duties. TIBs are commonly used to accommodate goods sent to the U.S. for repair and sample merchandise. If goods are not re-exported, the bond amount is forfeited to the U.S. government.

Tier 
A horizontal division of a vessel from bottom to top. The numbers run from bottom to deck and from deck upwards and are used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers.

Tilt Transport
Road transport whereby the cargo area is protected against the elements by means of a tilt made of canvas or other pliable material.

Time Charter 
A contract whereby a vessel is let to a charterer for a stipulated period of time or voyage, for a remuneration known as hire, generally a monthly rate per ton deadweight or a daily rate. The charterer is free to employ the vessel as he thinks fit within the terms as agreed, but the ship-owner continues to manage his own vessel through the master and crew who remain his servants.

Time Draft
Method of payment for goods. This allows for deferred payment. The buyer agrees to pay for the freight within a specific time-period.

Time Sheet 
Statement, drawn-up by the ship’s agent at the loading and discharging ports, which details the time worked in loading and discharging the cargo together with the amount of laytime used.

TOFC 
See Trailer on Flat Car.

Ton 
1. Unit of weight measurement: 1000 kilograms (metric ton) or 2,240 lbs (long ton).
2. Unit of cubic measurement, mainly used to express the cubic capacity of a vessel.
3. Unit of weight or measurement used as a basis for the calculation of freights (freight ton).

Tonnage 
1. Cubic capacity of a merchant vessel.
2. Total weight or amount of cargo expressed in tons.

Tracing
The action of retrieving information concerning the whereabouts of cargo, cargo items, consignments or equipment.

Tracking 
The function of maintaining status information, including current location, of cargo, cargo items, consignments or containers either full or empty.

Traction 
The power to grip or hold to a surface while moving without slipping.

Tractor 
A powered vehicle designed and used for towing other vehicles.

Trade
1. The exchange of goods, funds, services or information with value to the parties involved. This value is either previously agreed or established during business.
2. A commercial connection between two or more individual markets.

Traffic 
The number of passengers, quantity of cargo etc. carried over a certain route.

Trailer 
A vehicle without motive power, designed for the carriage of cargo and to be towed by a motor vehicle.

Trailer on Flat Car 
Abbreviation: TOFC Carriage of piggyback highway trailers on specially equipped railway wagons.

Tramp Vessel 
A vessel not operating under a regular schedule.

Transshipment 
Transfer and reloading of freight from one vessel to another (i.e., trailer to container) or from one mode of transportation to another (i.e., truck to steamship) during the course of shipment from origin to destination. MIQ Global: A shipment under one (MIQ Global) Bill of Lading, whereby sea (ocean) transport is ‘broken’ into two or more parts. The port where the sea (ocean) transport is ‘broken’ is the transshipment port. Transfer of cargo from one means of transport to another for on-carriage during the course of one transport operation. Customs: Customs procedure under which goods are transferred under customs control from the importing means of transport to the exporting means of transport within the area of one customs office which is the office of both importation and exportation.

Transit Cargo 
Cargo between outwards customs clearance and inwards customs clearance.

Transponder 
A device (chip) used for identification, which automatically transmits certain coded data when actuated by a special signal from an interrogator.

Transport 
The assisted movement of people and or goods. Synonym: Carriage. Note: Transport is often used as a generic term for various means of transport, and is distinguished from ‘movement’ in that it requires such means.

Transport Documents 
See Shipping Documents.

Transportation and Exportation Entry (T&E) 
Document that authorizes in bond transportation of freight across the U.S. for export to another foreign country.

Trip 
See Voyage.

Truck
Class of automotive vehicles of various sizes and designs for transporting goods.

Trunk 
The stretch between two hubs mutually.

Trunking
Movement of containers between terminal and carrier’s inland facilities.

Tugmaster 
Brand name of tractor unit used in ports to pull trailers. They are equipped with a fifth wheel or a gooseneck type of coupling.

‘Tweendeck
Cargo carrying surface below the main deck dividing a hold horizontally in an upper and a lower compartment.

Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit 
Abbreviation: TEU Unit of measurement equivalent to one twenty foot shipping container.

Twistlock 
Device which has to be inserted into the corner fittings of a shipping container and is turned or twisted, thus locking the container for the purpose of securing or lifting.

Two Way Pallet 
A pallet of which the frame permits the entry of forks of (e.g. a fork lift at two opposite sides).

Type of Cargo 
An indication of the sort of cargo to be transported, (e.g. Break Bulk, Containerized, RoRo).

Type of Equipment 
The type of material used, e.g. 40 feet container, four way pallet or mafi trailer.

Type of Load indicator 
A general reference or a classification of loads of cargo like ‘FCL’, ‘LCL’, ‘unpacked’ and even ship’s convenience container, though this is rarely used nowadays.

Type of Means of Transport 
The type of vehicle used in the transport process, e.g. wide-body aircraft, tank truck or passenger vessel.

Type of Movement 
Description of the service for movement of containers. Note: The following type of movement can be indicated on B/L and Manifest all combinations of FCL and LCL and break bulk and RoRo. Whilst only on the manifest combinations of House, Yard and CFS can be mentioned.

Type of Packing 
Description of the packaging material used to wrap, contain and protect goods to be transported. Synonym: Kind of Packing, Package Type.

Type of Transport 
The indication whether the carrier or the merchant effects and bears the responsibility for inland transport of cargo in containers i.e. a differentiation between the logistical and legal responsibility. Note: Values are Carrier haulage and Merchant haulage, whilst in this context special cases are carrier-nominated merchant haulage, and merchant nominated carrier haulage.

Type of Vessel 
The sort of vessel used in the transport process e.g. Container, RoRo, or Multi Purpose.


U

UCP 500
See Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits.

UIC 
See Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer.

ULCC 
See Ultra Large Crude Carrier.

ULD 
See Unit Load Device.

Ullage 
Free space above a liquid contained in a tank, drum or tank-container, expressed as a percentage of the total capacity. Ullage is often used to leave room for possible expansion of the liquid.

Ultra Large Crude Carrier
Abbreviation: ULCC A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk with a loading capacity from 250.000 till 500.000 DWT.

Unaccompanied Baggage 
Luggage not accompanied by a passenger.

Uncontainerable goods 
Goods which cannot be carried in a container because of their dimensions

UNCTAD 
See United Nations Conference on Trade And Development.

Undercarriage 
A supporting frame or structure of a wheeled vehicle; The landing gear of an aircraft.

Undercarrier 
A carrier in a conference or consortium who carries less cargo than the allotment distributed to him.

UNDG Number 
See United Nations Dangerous Goods Number.

UNECE 
See United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits 
The 1993 revised rules of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) governing a letter of credit issued in respect of goods shipped applicable as from 1-1-1994.

Unit Load 
A number of individual packages bonded, palletized or strapped together to form a single unit for more efficient handling by mechanical equipment.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
Abbreviation: UNCTAD A United Nations agency whose work in shipping includes the liner code involving the sharing of cargoes between the shipping lines of the importing and exporting countries and third countries in the ratio 40:40:20.

United Nations Dangerous Goods Number 
Abbreviation: UNDG Number The four-digit number assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods to classify a substance or a particular groups of substances. Note: The prefix ‘UN’ must always be used in conjunction with these numbers.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe 
Abbreviation: UN/ECE The UN/ECE is one of a number of Economic and Social Commissions established by the General Assembly of the United Nations. Despite its name it embraces both Europe and North America. The UN/ECE comprises twenty nine core member states, as well as any country which is a member of the United Nations and which applies under Article 11 of the United Nations constitution for delegate status. The aim is to advance the economic development of Europe and associated countries through trade facilitation and common agreements.

United Nations Layout Key 
Abbreviation: UNLK A standard (ISO6422) which lays down the basic principles for the design of the image area on documents for use in international trade. Synonym: Layout Key.

UNLK 
See United Nations Layout Key.

United Nations Standard Message
Abbreviation: UNSM A collection of structured data that is exchanged to convey information related to a specific transaction between partners engaged in electronic data interchange. Messages are composed of logically grouped segments required for the type of message transaction covered.  Note: A set of segments in the order specified in a message directory starting with the message header and ending with the message trailer (ISO9735).

UNSM 
See United Nations Standard Message.

Utilization Rate
The quotient of used capacity and available capacity.


V

Valuable Cargo
A consignment which contains one or more valuable articles (aircargo).

Valuation Charge 
Transport charges for certain goods, based on the value declared for the carriage of such goods (aircargo).

Value Added Tax
Abbreviation: VAT A form of indirect sales tax paid on products and services at each stage of production or distribution, based on the value added at that stage and included in the cost to the ultimate customer.

Value Surcharge 
A surcharge for the carriage of cargo having a value in excess of a specified amount per kilogram (aircargo).

Vanning 
See Stuffing.

VAT 
See Value Added Tax.

Vendee 
Buyer

Vendor 
Seller

Ventilated/Coffee 
Identical to the GP, except for the inclusion of full length ventilation galleries sited along the top and bottom side rails, and thus ideal for the carriage of coffee, as condesation is prevented from accumulating. 20′ only

Very Large Crude Carrier 
Abbreviation: VLCC A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk with a loading capacity from 50.000 till 250.000 DWT.

Vessel 
1. A floating structure designed for the transport of cargo and/or passengers.
2. Boiler, drum Synonym: Ship.

VLCC 
See Very Large Crude Carrier.

Volatility Allowance 
The largest difference in container availability taking into account past peaks in net demand after having removed the trend in container demand during the repositioning trade-off period.

Volume 
Size or measure of anything in three dimensions.

Voucher
A receipt, entry or other document which establish the accounts.

Voyage 
A journey by sea from one port or country to another one or, in case of a round trip, to the same port. Synonym: Trip.

Voyage Charter 
A contract under which the ship-owner agrees to carry an agreed quantity of cargo from a specified port or ports to another port or ports for a remuneration called freight, which is calculated according to the quantity of cargo loaded, or sometimes at a lump sum freight.

Voyage Number 
Reference number assigned by the carrier or his agent to the voyage of the vessel.


W

Waiting Time
The period of time between the moment at which one is ready for an activity to start and the moment at which this activity can actually begin. See also queue time.

Waiver Clause
Clause in a marine insurance policy stating that no acts of the insurer or insured in recovering, saving or preserving the property insured, shall be considered a dismissal from or acceptance of abandonment.

War Risk
Perils of war or warlike operations, such as capture, seizure, arrests, restraints of kings, princesses and people, hostilities, civil war, mines, torpedo’s. War risks are not covered under a policy for marine perils and must therefore be covered under a separate policy for war risks.

Warehouse
A building specially designed for receipt, storage and handling of goods. Synonyms: Shed, Store.

Warehouse Entry
Applies to imported goods that won’t be used immediately. Duties are deferred until the goods are required. Freight is sent to a customs-licensed warehouse. Upon withdrawal, duties are assessed.

Warehouse Keeper
Party who takes responsibility for goods entered into a warehouse.

Warehouse Receipt
Receipt for products deposited in a warehouse.

Warehousing
Those activities of holding and handling goods in a warehouse (store).

Waste Disposal
Processing and or removal to final resting place or transfer to a place for re-use or recovering of waste.

Waste Logistics
The collection of used, damaged, or outdated products and or packaging from designated users. Synonym: Reverse Distribution.

Waybill
Non-negotiable document evidencing the contract for the transport of cargo

Wear and Tear
Loss or deterioration resulting from ordinary use

Weight Ton
A ton of 1000 kilos

Wharf
A place for berthing vessels to facilitate loading and discharging of cargo

Wharfage
The fee charged for the use of a wharf for mooring, loading or discharging a vessel or for storing goods.

WHO
See World Health Organization.

Wholesaler
An intermediary between manufacturers and retailers in various activities such as promotion, warehousing, and the arranging of transport and or distribution

Work Load
The quantity of work ahead assigned to a certain facility such as a work station, capacity group or a department respectively staff-member.

World Health Organization
Abbreviation: WHO The global agency linked with the United Nations and cooperating with other technical agencies relating to health matters at sea and on land


Y

Yard
Fenced off, outdoor storage and repair area.

Yield Bucket
The remaining slot capacity for a trade/voyage in a certain port of loading after deduction of the allowance for specific contracts.

Yield Management
The process of maximizing the contribution of every slot, vessel, trade and network. Basically it should be seen as the process of allocating the right type of capacity to the right kind of customer at the right price as to maximize revenue or yield. The concept should be used in combination with load factor management.


Z

ZIP
See Zone Improvement Plan.

Zodiac
A rubber dinghy; an inflatable craft for the transport of people

Zone
Area, belt or district extending about a certain point defined for transport and/or charge purpose.

Zone Haulage Rate
The rate for which the carrier will undertake the haulage of goods or containers between either the place of delivery and the carrier’s appropriate terminal. Such haulage will be undertaken only subject to the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the carrier’s Combined Transport Bill of Lading.

Zone Improvement Plan
Abbreviation: ZIP System to simplify sorting and delivery of mail, consisting of a number of five digits (the so-called ZIP-code) for identification of the state, city or district, and the postal zone in the U.S.A. delivery areas.